Pharmacological activity of Mexican basidiomycetes species cultivated in vitro
A great variety of Basidiomycetes grow in Mexico, but most of their properties, includying pharmacological ones, have been scarcely investigated. In this study, the hypoglycemic, immunomodulating and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts prepared from cultured mycelia of Lentinus lepideus (Ll), Calvatia cyatiformis (Cc) and Ganoderma applanatum (Ga) collected in Nuevo León, Mexico are presented. Hypoglycemic activity was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats which received a single dose (100mg/kg po) of Ll, Cc or Ga, and the serum glucose was measured at 0, 3, and 6h after administration, immunomodulating activity was evaluated in Balb/c mice according to the the Cunningham hemolytic plate assay. The antioxidant (DCFDA test) and cytotoxic (MTT test) effect were evaluated in Chang liver cells. None of the species tested had cytotoxic activity, Ll, Cc, and Ga lowered the serum glucose levels at 3h and 6h after administration Ll and Cc showed significant immunostimulation, Ll, Cc and Ga demonstrated relevant antioxidant activity (49%-75%); Ll was the species with major hypoglycemic, immunostimulating and antioxidant activity. A fractionation of Ll was carried out and four fractions were obtained (FI-FIV) and evaluated. Fractions II and III were the most active. Conclusion: Mexican Basidiomycetes are a potential source of compounds with hypoglycemic, immunomodulating and antioxidant activity.