Int J Sports Med 2012; 33(07): 531-536
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1297957
Physiology & Biochemistry
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Scuba Diving Activates Vascular Antioxidant System

A. Sureda
1  Biochemistry, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
,
J. M. Batle
2  Hyperbaric Research Institute (MEDISUB), Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, Laboratory of Physical Activity Sciences, IUNICS, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
,
M. D. Ferrer
1  Biochemistry, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
,
A. Mestre-Alfaro
3  Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, Laboratory of Physical ­Activity Sciences, IUNICS, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
,
J. A. Tur
3  Research Group on Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, Laboratory of Physical ­Activity Sciences, IUNICS, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
,
A. Pons
1  Biochemistry, University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
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accepted after revision 08. November 2011

Publikationsdatum:
04. Mai 2012 (eFirst)

Abstract

The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO2 oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.