First report of a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the esophagus diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA)
23 May 2012 (online)
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the esophagus is a rare tumor    with varying presentations . Only a few reports have described MALT lymphoma of the esophagus spanning the entire circumference and length of the esophagus . Many of these cases were diagnosed surgically. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is an established method of obtaining submucosal tissue specimens . We report here the first case of MALT lymphoma of the esophagus diagnosed by EUS-FNA.
A 60-year-old woman attended our institution due to dysphagia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a smooth surface with visible capillaries over the entire circumference of the esophagus and a white, soft, elastic submucosal tumor covered by normal mucosa ([Fig. 1]). An esophagogram showed a slightly elevated submucosal tumor extending over the entire esophageal length ([Fig. 2]), and enhanced computed tomography demonstrated thickening of the left bronchial and esophageal walls along with swelling of the pharyngeal lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a tumorous lesion presenting as a primarily hypoechoic mass arising in the third layer, with a hyperechoic region.
Because a diagnosis was not reached using specimens obtained with biopsy forceps, EUS-FNA was performed ([Fig. 3]). The presence of small- to medium-sized lymphocytic cells with mildly irregular nuclei, along with CD5(–), CD10(–), CD19(+), CD20(+), CD22 (+), and λ monoclonality on flow cytometry, led to a diagnosis of MALT lymphoma of the esophagus ([Fig. 4]). We described the tumor as a malignant, extramarginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type, clinical stage IV (Lugano International Conference classification). The patient was treated with a total of six courses of chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisolone (R-CHOP), and a complete response was achieved.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of EUS-FNA diagnosis of MALT lymphoma of the esophagus.
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