Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Glyphaea brevis (Spreng.) Monach. in Normal And Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats
Hypercholesterolemia, sometimes linked to diabetes, is a public health concern since it paves the way to severe complications such as hypertension and stroke. The search for innovative, natural and safe treatments to reverse the condition remains imperative. This study was aimed at evaluating the hypocholesterolemic potential of Glyphaea brevis (Spreng.) Monach. aqueous extract (AE) in both normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. AE was given on a daily basis to rats by gastric intubation at 500mg/kg for 30 days in a controlled study. At the end of experiment, administration of AE significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood total cholesterol (normal: -38.54%, p<0.01; diabetic: -22.08%, p<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (normal: -72.85%, p<0.01; diabetic: -38.15%, p<0.01) while no significant change was observed in triglycerides. Moreover, atherogenicity indices total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (TC/HDL-c) and LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (LDL-c/HDL-c) were significantly reduced at the end of study (TC/HDL-c: normal: -43.88%, p<0.01; diabetic: -32.43%, p<0.01; LDL-c/HDL-c: normal: -76.14%, p<0.01; diabetic: -44.11%, p<0.01). These results suggest the hypocholesterolemic effect of G. brevis. Such effect would be accountable of the presence of flavonoids (revealed by phytochemical screening) that may inhibit enzymes such as hydroxymethyl-CoA (HMGCoA) reductase that are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. The outcome of our study could find applications in the development of alternative means of treatment or prevention of hypercholesterolemia and its associated complications.