Evaluation of the effects of Parinari curatellifolia seed and Anthocleista vogelli root extracts individually and in combination on postprandial and alloxan-induced diabetes in animals
Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. seed and Anthocleista vogelii Planch.roots extracts mixture (1:1) have been used locally for the treatment of diabetes. The postprandial effects were evaluated on albino rats (20) randomly distributed into four groups. Each received orally 500mg/kg of the extract mixture, P. curatellifolia and A. vogelli respectively and the control 0.5ml (2% w/v) acacia solution. Blood glucose levels were monitored at 30, 60, and 120min. intervals as described by Ogbonnia et al (1). Twenty five diabetic albino rats with plasma glucose>=200mg/dl were randomly divided equally into five groups and treated orally for 30 days as follows: Groups I, II and III received orally 500mg/kg body weight of the mixture of P. curatellifolia and A.vogelii respectively while group IV received glibenclaimide 600µg/kg body weight (2), while V diabetic control received 0.5ml acacia solution. Results showed a significant reduction (p<=0.05) in postprandial plasma sugar level after 30min in all treatments. Also significant reductions (p<=0.05) in the plasma glucose, LDL-cholesterol, AST and ALT levels, and increase in HDL-cholesterol were observed in the treated diabetic groups. The pancreas tissue of diabetic animals treated with the extract mixture showed marked necrotic changes while pancreatic tissue of diabetic untreated animals showed more severe necrosis of beta cells which formed mass of amorphous oesinophilia. The glibenclamide treated animals showed spots of necrotic changes; otherwise they had predominantly viable beta cells. The results showed that the extracts and mixture had both good hypoglycaemic activity and beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors.
Acknowledgement: I would like to acknowledge traditional medical practitioners T.U Agu and GO Ozougwu for supplying me the plant materials and information on their ethnobotanical uses
References: (1) Ogbonnia SO, Odimegwu JI and Enwuru VN (2008) Afr J Biotech 7(15): 2935–2939
(2) MahdiA A et al. (2003) Indian J Clinical Biochem 18 (2): 8–15