Skull Base 2011; 21(3): 177-184
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1275252

© Thieme Medical Publishers

Surgical Approaches to Facial Nerve Deficits

Craig Birgfeld1 , 2 , Peter Neligan1
  • 1Division of Plastic Surgery in Department of Surgery, University of Washington
  • 2Division of Plastic Surgery in Seattle Children's Hospital, Surgery, Seattle, Washington
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21. März 2011 (online)


The facial nerve is one of the most commonly injured cranial nerves. Once injured, the effects on form, function, and psyche are profound. We review the anatomy of the facial nerve from the brain stem to its terminal branches. We also discuss the physical exam findings of facial nerve injury at various levels. Finally, we describe various reconstructive options for reanimating the face and restoring both form and function.


Craig Birgfeld, M.D. 

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Washington

4800 Sand Point Way NE, M/S W-7847, P.O. Box 5371, Seattle, WA 98105

eMail: [email protected]