Horm Metab Res 2011; 43(3): 153-164
DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1270521

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Testosterone Deficiency as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

M. I. Ullah1 , T. Washington2 , M. Kazi2 , S. Tamanna1 , 3 , C. A. Koch4
  • 1Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, USA
  • 2Department of Medicine, Advocate Christ Medical Center and University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA
  • 3Division of Pulmonary and Sleep Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, USA
  • 4Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, USA
Further Information

Publication History

received 22.11.2010

accepted 15.12.2010

Publication Date:
31 January 2011 (online)


Testosterone deficiency (TD) has become a frequently diagnosed condition in our current society with an obesity epidemic. Men diagnosed with TD often have co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome. Challenging aspects in diagnosing and treating patients with TD include intra-individual variation of symptoms combined with lack of its correlation with serum levels of testosterone. Apart from sexual aspects including libido and erectile function, replacement therapy with testosterone might have beneficial metabolic effects, whereas untreated TD might increase cardiometabolic risk and disease. In this article, we review the cardiovascular and metabolic risks associated with TD, as well as risks and benefits of testosterone replacement therapy. We also provide insights into potential mechanisms of the association between cardiometabolic risks with TD (treated and untreated) and propose an individual treatment algorithm.



Prof. Dr. med. habil. C. A. Koch, FACP, FACE 

Division of Endocrinology

University of Mississippi

Medical Center

2500 North State Street

University of Mississippi

Medical Center

MS 39216 Jackson


Phone: +1/601/984 5495

Fax: +1/601/984 5769

Email: ckoch@umc.edu