Int J Sports Med 2011; 32(3): 185-189
DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1268437
Training & Testing

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Warm-Up Affects Diurnal Variation in Power Output

K. Taylor1 , 2 , J. B. Cronin2 , 3 , N. Gill3 , D. W. Chapman1 , 2 , J. M. Sheppard2
  • 1Department of Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australia
  • 2School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia
  • 3Sport Performance Research Institute, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision October 25, 2010

Publication Date:
08 February 2011 (online)


The purpose of this study was to examine whether time of day variations in power output can be accounted for by the diurnal fluctuations existent in body temperature. 8 recreationally trained males (29.8±5.2 yrs; 178.3±5.2 cm; 80.3±6.5 kg) were assessed on 4 occasions following a: (a) control warm-up at 8.00 am; (b) control warm-up at 4.00 pm; (c) extended warm-up at 8.00 am; and, (d) extended warm-up at 4.00 pm. The control warm-up consisted of dynamic exercises and practice jumps. The extended warm-up incorporated a 20 min general warm-up on a stationary bike prior to completion of the control warm-up, resulting in a whole body temperature increase of 0.3±0.2°C. Kinetic and kinematic variables were measured using a linear optical encoder attached to a barbell during 6 loaded counter-movement jumps. Results were 2–6% higher in the afternoon control condition than morning control condition. No substantial performance differences were observed between the extended morning condition and afternoon control condition where body temperatures were similar. Results indicate that diurnal variation in whole body temperature may explain diurnal performance differences in explosive power output and associated variables. It is suggested that warm-up protocols designed to increase body temperature are beneficial in reducing diurnal differences in jump performance.



Kristie-Lee Taylor

Australian Institute of Sport


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