Investigation on pharmacological and antimicrobial activities of Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin growing in Iran
Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin (Amaryllidaceae) is an endemic species of the Caucasus region and the Alborz mountains in Iran (1). All species of Galanthus are famous for their bioactive alkaloids such as galanthamine, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, which is used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (1). The bulbs of the plant were collected in February 2008 in Alborz mountain area (Rostam abad), Iran. The total extract was prepared by cool percolation method using ethanol and the chloroform fraction was obtained. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, sterols and cardiac glycosides in bulbs total ethanolic extract. The antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract of bulbs and chloroform fraction were evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus piogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Shigella soneii, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans using cup plate diffusion method. The time course of the effects of the ethanolic extract of bulbs, administered intrapritoneally to rats, on the spatial memory retention in the Morris water maze was investigated (2). The results showed that G. transcaucasicus Fomin ethanolic extract of bulbs had antibacterial activity against B. subtilis ATCC 6633 (MIC 9.275mg/ml) and antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC 150 unit/ml). The chloroform fraction showed activity against S. aureus ATCC 6538 (MIC 1.17mg/ml). The administered doses of 5, 25 and 100mg/kg showed a significant reduction in escape latency (P<0.05), and traveled distance (P<0.05) but not swimming speed, compared with control suggesting significant spatial memory retention enhancement by G. transcaucasicus Fomin.
References: 1. Bastida, J. et al. (2000). The alkaloids. Elsevier Scientific Publishing, Amesterdom 63: 87–179.
2. Sharifzadeh, M. et al. (2005). Eur J Pharmacol 511:159–66.