Chemical composition of essential oil of Pinus peuce (Pinaceae) from Macedonian flora and its antimicrobial activity
Pinus peuce (Pinaceae) or Macedonian pine is a conifer which grows in the southern and western parts of the Macedonian territory, mainly on the Pelister and Nidze mountains, as well as the Shara Mountain where it can be found in small populations. The essential oil from the needles was obtained by hydrodestillation with a Klevenger apparatus. The yields obtained were from 0.2 to 1.2%. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most abundant components were alpha-pinene (9.84–30.27%), germacrene D (5.73–22.06), bornyl acetate (2.92–13.93%), beta-pinene (3.45–13.13%), D-limonene (1.74–10.04%), trans-caryophyllene (2.40–8.12%), camphene (1.32–7.42%), alpha-terpenyl acetate (0.57–5.05%), delta-cadinene (1.20–4.29) and alpha-cadinol (0.54–2.04%). The essential oil was screened for antimicrobial activities against seven type strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one fungal type strain using agar diffusion assays. The essential oil had significant antimicrobial activity, especially against Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and the yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The obtained results indicate that the essential oil from the needles of the Macedonian pine can be used as an antimicrobial and disinfectant.