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Antioxidant and anticancer activity and composition of the essential oil of Dracocephalum multicaule from Iran
The genus Dracocephalum L. (Lamiaceae) is represented in flora of Iran by eight annual and perennial species . Infusion of the aerial flowering parts of the Dracocephalum multicaule Montbar. & Auch. are used locally in the treatment of colds and gastrointestinal disorders. The goals of the present study were to determine: (1) the chemical composition of the essential oil of the plant, (2) the antioxidant activity of the essential oil and its major compounds using the 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the?-carotene-linoleic acid blenching assays and (3) the protective effect of essential oil in oxidative stress damage of K562 cells induced by hydrogen peroxide.
Chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil of Dracocephalum multicaule was characterized by GC and GC-MS. Monoterpenoids including oxygenated and hydrocarbons ones with 71.5 and 28.3%, respectively, were the principal groups. Perilla aldehyde (71.5%) and limonene (28.1%) were identified as the main components. Radical scavenging capacity and β-carotene bleaching assay was carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of samples according to Blois'  and Miller's  procedures. Antioxidant studies based on DPPH assay indicated that the essential oil of D. multicaule possesses a marked antioxidant and radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 438.2µg/ml. In addition, pre-treatment with essential oil and main constituents protected K562 cells 49.5% against H2O2 induced oxidative damage throughout increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content in K562 cells.
References: 1. Rechinger KH. (1982) Flora Iranica, Vol. 150, Graz, Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt.
2. Blois MS. (1958) Nature, 181: 1199–1200. 3. Miller HE. (1971). J. Am. Chem. Soc 48: 91–94.