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Phytochemical investigation of Johreniopsis seseloides aerial parts from Iran
Johreniopsis seseloides (C.A. Mey.) Pimenov belongs to the family of the Apiaceae, subfamily Apioidae, tribe Peucedaneae. The Johreniopsis genus has 4 species (J. oligactis. J. scopari, J. seseloides and J. sticticaulis) in Iran. Since there is no report about the secondary metabolites of J. seseloides, it was collected from Kordestan Province in August 2007 and aerial parts were finely powdered in a mill. 600g of sample was percolated with 80% methanol. After evaporation of the solvent, the gummy residue (crude extract) was re-extracted with chloroform (chloroform extract) and the residue was named the methanol extract. A white amorphous substance was precipitated from the total hydroalcholic extract and identified as a free carbohydrate, mannitol. The methanol extract (70g) was investigated for flavonoids and the chloroform extract (22g) for coumarins and other compounds. Flavonoids are potent antioxidants and have important activities, such as dietary anti-carcinogens and anti-inflammatory compounds. Flavonoids are also significant to plants, serving as signal molecules in various developmental processes. Coumarins are chemical compounds found in many plants especially in the genera of the Apiaceae. They have clinical value as the precursor for several anticoagulants, notably warfarin. Furocoumarins are used therapeutically for the treatment of vitiligo and psoriasis. In addition to mannitol, also quercetin, rutin, isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside, a chromon (3,5,7-trihydroxy-chromone), coumarin (1), 6–7-dimethoxy-coumarin or scoparone (2), bergapten (3), oxypeucedanin hydrate (4) and a triterpene (α-amyrin) were isolated from the methanol and chloroform extracts of this plant with different chromatographic methods and identified with spectroscopic methods.