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Phytochemical investigation and microscopic analysis of aerial parts of Otostegia persica
Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss. (Labiatae) is one of the four endemic species of plants which grows in Iran. In traditional medicine, aerial parts of the plant are used for treatment of diabetes, rheumatism and oral infections . The aerial parts of Otostegia persica (collected in May 2008 from Sistan & Baluchestan Provinces, Iran) were extracted with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethyl acetate (EA), butanol (BU) and methanol (ME). A new isoflavonoid (6,4′,5′-trihydroxy-3′-methoxy isoflavone 7-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1–4)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) with orange color was isolated and identified from the ME fraction. The total phenolic content of all fractions was measured with the Folin-Ciocalteau method , with some modifications. The BU and EA fractions showed the highest amount of phenol content (288.1 and 271.9mg of gallic acid/100g fraction), respectively. The total glycosylated flavonoid level was measured by the DAB 10 standard method with some modifications, and apigenin was used as standard. The results showed thet the ME and BU fractions contained 72.66 and 68% flavones, respectively. Otostegia persica powder had a pale yellowish-green color with little odor and bitter taste. The diagnostic characters are: (a) the covering trichomes (unicellular and multicellular) with wide base and some times warted walls. (b) The epidermis showing diacytic stomata, big cicatrix, spiral, double helix and annular thickening vessels; some paranchymatous cells had beaded or sinuous walls. (c) The cluster crystals of calcium oxalate and (d) the epidermal cells of the stigmas which were extended to form long, finger-like papillaes.
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2. Pourmorad, F., Hosseinimehr, S.J., et al. (2006). Afr J Biotechnol. 5(11):pp.1142–1145.