Homœopathic Links 2010; 23(3): 143-145
DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1250194

© Sonntag Verlag in MVS Medizinverlage Stuttgart GmbH & Co. KG

Sapere aude – Philosophy and Zeitgeist in Hahnemann's Time

Michael Hartmann Germany
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
19 October 2010 (online)


Hahnemann changed Kant's motto of the Age of Enlightenment “sapere aude” into “aude sapere” in his second edition of the Organon in 1819. The inversion can be regarded as a criticism of the strict materialism into which the Enlightenment had developed as homeopathy shows that materialism is wrong. In a similar way the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer unmasked philosophical materialism as being based on circular conclusion. After Schopenhauer's proof it is logically impossible to deny homeopathy due to its nonmaterial effects. There are more similarities between the two great thinkers revealed by the fact that Schopenhauer introduces a non-material force behind matter and reality which recalls our experience with homeopathic remedies and describes a mental healing process as the great sapere aude.


  • 1 Gawlick W. Sapere aude, incipe!. Appell RG Homöopathie und Philosophie & Philosophie der Homöopathie. Eisenach; Bluethenstaub Verlag 1998: 114-119
  • 2 La Mettrie J O. Machine Man and Other Writings. Cambridge; Text in the History of Philosophy 1996
  • 3 Kant I. Träume eines Geistersehers. Stuttgart; Reclam Verlag 1976: 75
  • 4 Schiller F. Der Geisterseher. Stuttgart; Reclam Verlag 2006
  • 5 Schmidt J. Die philosophischen Vorstellungen Samuel Hahnemanns bei der Begründung der Homöopathie. München; Sonntag Verlag 1990: 378
  • 6 Schopenhauer A. The World as Will and Representation. New York; Dover Publications 1966
  • 7 Young C, Brook A. Schopenhauer and Freud. http://http-server.carleton.ca/~abrook/SCHOPENY.htm (date of access July 25, 2010)
  • 8 von Rutenberg J. Arthur Schopenhauer in Zeit Geschichte Sonderbeilage.  Die Zeit. 2009;  64 20
  • 9 Yalom I D. The Schopenhauer Cure. New York; Harper Collins Pub. 2004
  • 10 Safranski R. Schopenhauer oder die wilden Jahre der Philosophie. Frankfurt; S. Fischer Verlag 2008
  • 11 Schopenhauer A. Über den Willen in der Natur. Kleinere Schriften. Zürich; Diagenes Verlag 1977: 302

1 Rene Descartes (1596–1650) had talked of two substances, one for the soul, one for the body.

2 Werner Heisenberg to the young Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in 1927: “I think I disproved the law of causality”.

3 Remarkably Schopenhauer was influenced by the philosophical tradition of India, the country which accepted homeopathy most.

Michael Hartmann, MD

Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist, Homeopathy

Sauerbruchstraße 43

68723 Schwetzingen


Email: dr.m.hartmann@arcor.de