Endoscopy 2010; 42: E134-E135
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1244058
Unusual cases and technical notes

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Billroth II gastrectomy complicated by gastrojejunocolonic fistulas, treated endoscopically with a cardiac septal defect closure device

G.  Kouklakis1 , P.  Zezos1 , N.  Liratzopoulos2 , M.  Pitiakoudis3 , E.  Efremidou2 , A.  Giatromanolaki4 , N.  Courcoutsakis5 , C.  Simopoulos3
  • 1Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
  • 21st Department of Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
  • 32nd Department of Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
  • 4Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
  • 5Department of Radiology, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
19 April 2010 (online)

Gastrojejunocolonic fistula is a severe complication of gastrectomy with mainly Billroth II reconstruction carried out for peptic ulcer or malignant disease. It may develop 1 – 20 years after the procedure. Since the small bowel is bypassed, malnutrition due to malabsorption occurs [1] [2].

A 58-year-old Greek man was admitted for fecal-smelling eructation, diarrhea, and weight loss during the past year. He had undergone a distal gastric resection with Billroth II reconstruction for a perforated duodenal ulcer 21 years ago. Barium meal and computed tomography enteroclysis studies revealed fistulous tracts between the transverse colon, the upper jejunum, and the gastric remnant ([Fig. 1]). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy confirmed the above findings and showed fecal material into the gastric remnant lumen ([Fig. 2]). The patient refused surgery and after malignancy was excluded, we attempted to occlude both fistulas with the Amplatzer atrial septal defect closure device (9-ASD-040; AGA Medical Corp., Plymouth, Minnesota, USA), an idea based on the report of Melmed et al. [3]. We modified the technique of device delivery by using the endoscope itself to upload, guide, and deploy the Amplatzer device through the wide fistula tract ([Fig. 3], [Video 1]).


Quality:

Video 1 Technique for endoscopic implantation of an Amplatzer device for the occlusion of a gastrocolonic fistula.

The procedure was uneventful and 1 week later, an endoscopy showed the device at the gastroenterostomy site without fecal material into the gastric lumen ([Fig. 4]); a small but functionally insignificant leakage of Gastrografin was also noted ([Fig. 5]). The patient's condition improved with cessation of fecal-smelling eructation and diarrhea and an increase in appetite and weight.

Fig. 1 Axial computed tomography (CT) enteroclysis demonstrating a fistula between the greater curvature of the stomach and the transverse colon (arrow).

Fig. 2 Endoscopic appearance of two neighboring fistulas discharging fecal material (white arrows) close to the gastroenteroanastomosis (black arrow).

Fig. 3 Endoscopic view of the orifices of the two gastrojejunocolic fistulas occluded by the Amplatzer device. The arrow is indicating the tip of the delivery catheter attached to the endoscope.

Fig. 4 Endoscopic appearance of the bile-stained Amplatzer device 1 week after placement.

Fig. 5 Upper gastrointestinal study with Gastrografin 1 week after the placement of the Amplatzer device.

It is recommended that malnutrition should be corrected and radical surgery carried out with resection of the entire fistula and re-establishment of gastrojejunal and colonic continuity [2] [4]. However, nonoperative medical management strategies have also been proposed [5]. This is the first case of implantation of an Amplatzer atrial septal defect closure device to occlude two gastrojejunocolonic fistulas with a novel delivery method in the complicated setting of a Billroth II reconstruction. This approach could be an alternative to surgical management in certain circumstances, especially in patients with a high operative risk.

Competing interests: None

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References

P. Zezos, MD 

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit, Democritus University of Thrace, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis

40 Venizelou Str
68 100 Alexandroupolis
Greece

Fax: +30-25510-84168

Email: zezosp@hol.gr