Anti-inflammatory compounds from Crithmum maritimum
Crithmum maritimum L. (Sea Fennel) is a halophyte perennial herb of the European littoral, traditionally used for its antibacterial, vermifuge, antispasmodic and tonic properties .
We investigated in vitro the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from the aerial parts of C. maritimum using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy individuals. The dichloromethane extract at doses of 50 and 10µg.mL-1 exhibited a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-induced production of TNF-α by PBMC, using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.
Thus, in addition to four compounds already described in the sea fennel [2,3] like dillapiole (1), scopoletin (2), scoparone (3) and falcarindiol (4), we isolated six other substances which are identified for the first time in the genus Crithmum: vomifoliol (5), ω-hydroxyisodillapiole (6), ferulaldehyde (7), iso-scopoletin (8) and diosmetin (9). Furthermore, a new structure was characterized: (2E)-2-ethylidene-3-[(10E,12R)-12-hydroxybut-10-en-10-yl]-4,4-dimethylcyclopentanone (10).
Among them, three metabolites, (2–4) showed potent anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 of 9.15µM, 19µM and 37µM respectively, on our experimental model.
References: Özcan, M. et al. (2001) Nahrung 45:353–356.
 Cunsolo, F. et al. (1993)J. Nat. Prod. 56:1598–600.
 Katsouri, E. et al. (2001)J. Ess. Oil Res. 13:303–308.