Semin intervent Radiol 2009; 26(3): 233-244
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1225668
© Thieme Medical Publishers

Visceral Artery Interventions in Takayasu's Arteritis

Sanjiv Sharma1 , Ashish Gupta1
  • 1Department of Cardiac Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
12 August 2009 (online)


Takayasu's arteritis is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disease affecting the aorta, its major branches and the pulmonary arteries. It leads to stenosis, occlusion, dilatation, and aneurysm formation in the involved vessels. Visceral arterial involvement occurs in 11 to 68% cases. Steno-obstructive lesions are most commonly seen and are usually symptomatic. Dilative and aneurismal lesions are uncommon and, when present, are usually clinically silent. Renal arteries are most commonly involved (24 to 68%), resulting in renovascular hypertension, whereas mesenteric arterial involvement is seen in 11 to 28% cases and is usually clinically silent. The assessment of disease activity is of utmost importance in its management as revascularization is best performed in the inactive phase. The disease activity can be assessed by clinical, biochemical, or radiological markers. The primary objectives of treatment include the control of disease activity by drug therapy, pharmacologic control of blood pressure (BP), supportive management and revascularization (surgical or endovascular) of the symptomatic ischemic territory. Surgical treatment is challenging due to the diffuse nature of the disease and involvement of adjacent aortic walls. It has a high incidence of anastomotic aneurysm formation (12 to 14%) and graft failure (20 to 40%) over time. Endovascular therapy (usually in the form of balloon angioplasty) has specific technical and procedural issues, but is safe and effective in the control of hypertension with success rates ranging between 80 to 96%. The overall complication rates are low. The cumulative 5-year patency rate for the management of renal artery stenosis is 67%. The use of stents is usually restricted as a bailout to treat obstructive dissection after angioplasty, due to a variety of reasons as their use may adversely affect the long-term outcome of treatment. Angioplasty is less effective in relieving obstruction in the mesenteric arteries and the outcomes are also infrequently reported.


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Sanjiv SharmaM.D. 

Professor and Head, Department of Cardiac Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences

New Delhi 10029, India