Planta Med 2009; 75(8): 785-791
DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1185398
Original Paper
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of an Extract of Andrographolides from Andographis paniculata

Suresh R. Naik1 , Amolkumar Hule1
  • 1Prin. K. M. Kundnani College of Pharmacy, Rambhau Salgaonkar Marg, Cuff, Parade, Colaba, Mumbai, India (Affiliated with the University of Mumbai, India)
Further Information

Publication History

received Nov. 11, 2008 revised January 12, 2009

accepted January 18, 2009

Publication Date:
04 March 2009 (online)


The immunomodulatory activity of HN-02, an extract containing a mixture of andrographolides (i.e., andrographolide [88 ± 5 %] plus 14-deoxyandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide together [12 ± 3 %]) in a pure powder form was evaluated at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg on different in vivo and in vitro experimental models. In a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) mouse model, potentiation of the DTH reaction was observed after treatment with cyclophosphamide (CYP) and HN-02 individually. However, CYP potentiation of the DTH reaction was reversed by HN-02 pretreatment. Furthermore, HN-02 treatment elevated the depressed hemagglutination antibody (HA) titer and increased the number of plaque-forming cells (PFCs) in the spleen cells of mice that had been treated with CYP and challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Further, it was also found that HN-02 treatment stimulated phagocytosis in mice. A significant increase in total WBC count and relative weight of spleen and thymus was observed in mice during 30 days of treatment with HN-02. The present experimental findings demonstrate that HN-02 has the ability to enhance immune function, possibly through modulation of immune responses altered during antigen interaction, and to reverse the immunosuppression induced by CYP.


  • 1 Lee G I, Young H A, Rakmin J, Nakagawa H, Tsurufuji S, Chang I M, Kim Y. Inhibitory effects of oriental herbal medicines on IL‐8 induction in lipopolysaccharide-activated rat macrophages.  Planta Med. 1995;  61 26-30
  • 2 Siripong P, Kongkathik B, Preechanukool K, Picha P, Tunsuwan K, Taylor W C. Cytotoxic diterpenoid constituents from Andrographis paniculata, Nees leaves.  J Sci Soc Thialand. 1992;  18 187-194
  • 3 Sandberg F. Andrographidis herba Chuanxinlian: A review. Gothenburg; Swedish Herbal Institute, Available from the American Botanical Council (USA) 1994
  • 4 Matsuda T, Kuroyanagi M, Sugiyama S, Umehara K, Ueno A, Nishi K. Cell differentiation inducing diterpenes from Andrographis paniculata Nees.  Chem Pharm Bull Tokyo. 1994;  42 1216-1225
  • 5 Weibo L. Prospect for study on treatment of AIDS with traditional Chinese medicine.  J Tradit Chin Med. 1995;  15 3-9
  • 6 Zhang X F, Tan B K. Antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant properties of Andrographis paniculata in normal and diabetic rats.  Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2000;  27 358-363
  • 7 Shen Y C, Chen C F, Chiou W F. Andrographolide prevents oxygen radical production by human neutrophils: possible mechanism(s) involved in its anti-inflammatory effect.  Brit J Pharmacol. 2002;  135 399-406
  • 8 See D, Mason S, Roshan R. Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and natural killer cell (N.K.) function using an integrative approach in late stage cancer.  Immunol Invest. 2002;  31 137-153
  • 9 Khandelwal K R. Practical pharmacology techniques and experiments. Pune; Nirali Prakashan 2005: 141-164
  • 10 Nanthanit P, Nuchanart R, Sanit T, Somsak R, Mathuros R. Jutamaads determination and variation of three active diterpenoid in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. t) Nees.  Phytochem Anal. 2004;  15 365-371
  • 11 Liew F Y. Regulation of delayed type of hypersensitivity – 1, T-suppressor cells of delayed type of hypersensitivity to erythrocytes in mice.  Eur J Immunol. 1977;  7 714-717
  • 12 Agarwal R, Diwanay S, Patki P, Patwardhan B. Studies of immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera extracts in experimental immune inflammation.  J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;  67 27-35
  • 13 Nelson D S, Midenhall P. Studies on cytophilic antibodies: the production by mice of macrophage cytophilic antibodies to sheep erythrocytes: relationship to the production of other antibodies and development of delayed type hypersensivity.  Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci. 1967;  45 113-130
  • 14 Jerne N K, Nordin A A. Plaque formation in agar by single antibody producing cells.  Science. 1963;  140 405-406
  • 15 Biozzi G, Benecerraf B, Halpern B N. Quantitative study of the granulopectic activity of the reticulo-endothelial system. II. A study of the kinetics of the R. E. S. in relation to the dose of carbon injected; relationship between the weight of the organs and their activity.  Brit J Exp Pathol. 1953;  34 441-457
  • 16 Tiwari U, Rastogi B, Singh P, Saraf D, Vyas S P. Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extract of Tridox procumbens in experimental animals.  J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;  92 113-119
  • 17 Davis L, Kuttan G. Immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera.  J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;  71 193-200
  • 18 Benaceraf B. A hypothesis to relate the specificity of T lymphocytes and the activity of I region specific Ir genes in macrophages and B-lymphocytes.  J Immunol. 1978;  120 1809-1812
  • 19 Kuby J. Immunology, 2nd edition. New York; W. H. Freeman and Company 1994: 23-45

Suresh R. Naik

Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S. No. 309/310

Kusgaon (Bk), Off Mumbai-Pune Expressway

Lonavala, Dist.-Pune

410401 Maharashtra State


Phone: + 91 21 14 30 43 24 or 30 43 22

Fax: + 91 21 14 28 02 05