Informationen aus Orthodontie & Kieferorthopädie 2009; 41(2): 129-137
DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1098927

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart ˙ New York

Skelettales K-Pendulum – eine rein skelettal verankerte, compliance-unabhängige Apparatur zur Molarendistalisation im Oberkiefer

Skeletal K-Pendulum – A Non-Compliance Appliance with Skeletal Anchorage for Maxillary Molar DistalizationB. Ludwig1 , 2 , B. Glasl1 , G. Kinzinger2 , J. Lisson2
  • 1in eigener Praxis
  • 2Poliklinik für Kieferorthopädie, Universität des Saarlandes, Homburg / Saar
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
23 June 2009 (online)


The molar distalization with non-compliance devices has undergone a long and successful devel­opment and has become one of the most commonly used orthodontic treatment techniques by now. The conventional devices are based on an extensive coverage of the dental arch or the palate and lead to reactive effects on the anterior dental arch. The use of skeletal anchorage strategies shows new ways to compensate these disadvantages. The article discusses the conceptual devel­opment in the field of non-compliance molar distalization, describing internationally recognized devices and their modifications. By combining proven strategies, the authors have developed a purely skeletally anchored design (Skeletal K-Pendulum), based on two miniscrews placed in the anterior palate, composed of the elements of the K-Pendulum and the Simplified Molar Distal­izer thus using their respective special mechanical ­advantages in one device. In addition to the active distalization without reactive effects on the anterior dentition, skeletal anchorage enables a simultaneous alignment of the dental arch. Design and manufacturing process of the device as well as the insertion of miniscrews and the clinical handling of the skeletal K-Pendulum are discussed in detail and its effectiveness is documented by treatment cases.


  • 1 Bussick T J, McNamara Jr J A. Dentoalveolar and skeletal changes associated with the pendulum appliance.  Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2000;  117 333-343
  • 2 Byloff F K, Darendeliler M A, Clar E et al. Distal molar movement using the pendulum appliance. Part 2. The effects of maxillary molar root ­uprighting bends.  Angle Orthod. 1997;  67 261-270
  • 3 Carano A, Testa M. The distal jet for upper molar distalization.  J Clin ­Orthod. 1996;  30 374-380
  • 4 Escobar S A, Tellez P A, Moncada C A et al. Distalization of maxillary ­molars with the bone-supported pendulum: a clinical study.  Am J ­Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007;  131 545-549
  • 5 Fuziy A, Rodrigues de Almeida R, Janson G et al. Sagittal, vertical and transverse changes consequent to maxillary molar distalization with the pendulum appliance.  Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006;  130 502-510
  • 6 Gelgör I E, Büyükyilmaz T, Karaman A I et al. Intraosseous screw-sup­ported upper molar distalization.  Angle Orthod. 2004;  74 838-850
  • 7 Gesch D. A longitudinal study on growth in untreated children with ­angle class II, division 1 malocclusion.  J Orofac Orthop. 2000;  61 20-33
  • 8 Gracco A, Lombardo L, Cozzani M et al. Quantitative evaluation with CBCT of palatal bone thickness in growing patients.  Prog Orthod. 2006;  7 164-174
  • 9 Hilgers J J. Die Pendelapparatur – eine Weiterentwicklung.  Inf Orthod Kieferorthop. 1993;  25 20-23
  • 10 Hilgers J J. The pendulum appliance for class II non-compliance therapy.  J Clin Orthod. 1992;  26 706-714
  • 11 Jones R, White J. Rapid class II molar correction with an open coil jig.  J Clin Orthod. 1992;  26 661-664
  • 12 Kärcher H, Byloff F K, Clar E. The Graz implant supported pendulum, a technical note.  J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2002;  30 87-90
  • 13 Keles A, Pamukcu B, Tokmak E C. Bilateral molar distalization with sliding mechanics: Keles Slider.  World J Orthod. 2002;  3 57-60
  • 14 Kinzinger G, Diedrich P. A minimized Distal Jet with miniscrew anchorage for non-compliance distal movement of maxillary molars.  Kieferorthop. 2007;  21 243-251
  • 15 Kinzinger G SM, Diedrich P R, Bowman S J. Upper molar distalization with a miniscrew-supported distal jet.  J Clin Orthod. 2006;  40 672-678
  • 16 Kinzinger G, Wehrbein H, Byloff F K et al. Innovative anchorage alternatives for molar distalization – an overview.  J Orofac Orthop. 2005;  66 397-413
  • 17 Kinzinger G S, Wehrbein H, Diedrich P R. Molar distalization with a modified pendulum appliance – in vitro analysis of the force systems and in vivo study in children and adolescents.  Angle Orthod. 2005;  75 558-567
  • 18 Kinzinger G, Syrée C, Fritz U et al. Molar distalization with different pendulum appliances: in vitro registration of orthodontic forces and moments in the initial phase.  J Orofac Orthop. 2004;  65 389-409
  • 19 Kinzinger G, Fuhrmann R, Gross U et al. Modified pendulum appliance including distal screw and uprighting activation for non-compliance therapy of class-II malocclusions in children and adolescents.  J Orofac Orthop. 2000;  61 175-190
  • 20 Papadopoulos M A, Mavropoulos A, Karamouzos A. Cephalometric changes following simultaneous first and second maxillary molar distalization using a non-compliance intraoral appliance.  J Orofac Orthop. 2004;  65 123-136
  • 21 Scuzzo G, Takemoto K, Pisani F et al. The modified pendulum appliance with removable arms.  J Clin Orthod. 2000;  34 244-246
  • 22 Scuzzo G, Pisani F, Takemoto K. Maxillary molar distalization with a modified pendulum appliance.  J Clin Orthod. 1999;  33 645-650
  • 23 Snodgrass D J. A fixed appliance for maxillary expansion, molar rotation and molar distalization.  J Clin Orthod. 1996;  30 156-159
  • 24 Walde K C. The simplified molar distalizer.  J Clin Orthod. 2003;  37 616-619
  • 25 Wilson W L, Wilson R C. Modular orthodontics (Wilson) manual. Denver, Co: Rocky Mountain Orthodontics; 1981
  • 26 Wilson W L, Wilson R C. Modular orthodontic systems. Part 2.  J Clin ­Orthod. 1978;  12 358-375
  • 27 Yildizhan F. Strukturparameter des medianen Gaumens und orthodontische Verankerungsimplantate. Med. Diss., Aachen: 2004

Dr. B. Ludwig

Am Bahnhof 54

56841 Traben-Trarbach

Phone: 0 65 41 / 81 83 81

Fax: 0 65 41 / 81 83 94