Antimicrobial activity of Eurycoma longifolia and Momordica charantia
Eurycoma longifolia (Simaroubaceae) native to Indonesia and Malaysia is very popular for its testosterone-enhancing properties and can be found in supplements for bodybuilders. It has been used by the folk medicine as a libido enhancer and to treat various sexual dysfunctions. Also has anticancer, antimalarial, antipyretic, antiulcer, cytotoxic and aphrodisiac properties.
Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) grows in tropical areas, including parts of the Amazon, east Africa, Asia, South America. It has antibacterial, anticancer, antivirus activity. Also has the ability to reduce blood pressure, blood sugar, cholesterol etc.
Water and methanolic extracts obtained from Eurycoma longifolia and Momordica charantia were tested in vitro for their antibacterial properties against the reference strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 122228, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 12453) bacteria.
None of the plant extracts showed antibacterial activities to Gram-negative bacteria even at the highest concentration tested (2000mg/l). Differential activity of water and methanol extracts against Gram-positive bacteria was observed. Methanolic extracts have some antibacterial properties against these bacteria. The agar dilution method revealed that the most sensitive bacteria were Bacillus spp. and Micrococus spp. Methanolic extract from Momordica charanfia was more active against bacteria from these species (MICs ranging from 250 to 2000mg/l), than methanolic extract from Eurycoma longifolia (MICs 1000–2000mg/l).