Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Haloxylon articulatum (Forssk) Moq
Haloxylon articulatum leaves decoction is widely used by Algerian traditional medicine practitioners as a remedy for the treatment of diabetes. The aqueous extract was found to be non-toxic until at 1000mg/kg, as no deaths or hazardous signs were recorded during treatment or the observation period (24 and 72h) in either control or treated groups of mice. Experiments were performed in non-diabetic mice, and in hyperglycemic mice (glucose treated and alloxan treated mice) to confirm the antidiabetic potential of H. articulatum. Our results showed that the orally administration at a dose of 400mg/kg decreased after 6h, 29.89% of the glycaemia (p<0.05), corresponding to the greatest decrease of blood glucose in normoglycaemic mice. They also showed that this dose lowered blood glucose concentrations in diabetic mice revealing antihyperglycemic effect of H. articulatum leaves. Phytochemical screening exhibited that the aqueous extract contains alkaloid and saponin components. Our findings displayed that saponin (5mg/kg) was the active fraction, as it permitted to restore the normal blood glucose levels, after 21 days of treatment. The present study confirms the antidiabetic proprieties of H. articulatum leaves previously reported by Algerian healers.