Hepato and nephroprotective activities of Ruta graveolens and Sophora japonica and their flavonoids in normal and carcinogenic rat model
The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-carcinogenic effect of Ruta graveolens and Sophora japonica and their flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) in both normal and carcinogenic rats. A total umber of 238 albino rats were used. The animals were divided into 2 major groups each of 119 rats (normal and carcinogenic group induced by DMBA and TPA). Each group was subdivided into 17 groups, each composed by 7 rats, and each group orally received daily either 10% or 20% of LD50 of n-hexane (0.45, 1.28g/Kg,) or ethyl acetate (2.64, 3.10g/Kg) or chloroform extract (0.21, 0.89g/Kg) of Ruta graveolens or Sophora japonica plants or its flavonoids either rutin or quercetin. So, 10% and 20% administration of the LD50 of each of medicinal plant or their flavonoids were responsible for significant and highly significant decrease in serum glucose level. Moreover, significant decrease in serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglycerides while significant increase in blood superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were detected in the treated groups. Serum selenium and zinc were also increased after treatment with 20% of the LD50 of either flavonoids or flavonoid-containing medicinal plant extracts. Flavonoids and flavonoid-containing medicinal plants had no effect on liver and kidney functions as well as tumor markers (serum alpha-fetoprotein and ferritin) in normal rats. Administrating of both flavonoids and flavonoid-containing medicinal plant extracts to carcinogenic rats restored serum glucose, liver and kidney functions, lipid fractions, tumor markers and antioxidants to approach the normal level. Conclusion: The studied flavonoids and flavonoids-containing medicinal plant extracts had hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic, anticarcinogenic as well as antioxidant activity.