Contraceptive evaluation of isolated fractions of Cressa cretica (L.) whole plant methanol extract in male albino rats
Cressa cretica (L.) belonging to family Convolvulaceae is rich in flavonoids. Literature shows that flavonoids produce antiandrogenic activity and affect male fertility [1,2]. In the present study various fractions (Fr. I 75:25 CHCl3:CH3OH, Fr. II 50:50 CHCl3:CH3OH and Fr. III 25:75 CHCl3:CH3OH) of the C. cretica whole plant methanol extract were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel. These fractions were used to evaluate their effects on the reproductive functions in male albino rats. Oral administration of fractions I, II and III to male rats (50mg/rat/day) for the period of 60 days did not cause body weight loss, where as the weight of testes and accessory sex organs were decreased significantly (P≤0.001). Sperm counts of testes and cauda epididymides as well as cauda epididymal sperm motility was also declined significantly (P≤0.001) in comparison to control rats. The serum testosterone production was reduced in treated male rats. The fertility was decreased by 90% in Fr. I, 100% in Fr. II and 100% in Fr. III treated male rats. Total protein, sialic acid, glycogen content of testes and seminal vesicular fructose content were reduced significantly, whereas testicular cholesterol level was increased significantly. The seminiferous tubular diameter and Leydig cell nuclear area were reduced significantly. The population of spermatogenic cells i.e. spermatogonia, preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and round spermatids were also reduced significantly in comparison to controls. In conclusion various fractions of C. cretica responsible for the decline in testosterone production and also alters the spermatogenic activity which resulted in reduction in fertility of male rats.
References: 1. Bhargava, S.K. (1989)J. Ethnopharmacol. 27: 327–339.
2. da, Silveira, et al. (2003) Contracept. 67: 327–331.