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Optimizing lutein production from Spirulina platensis ARN 740 by response surface methodology
Lutein a dihydroxy carotenoid, naturally occurs mainly in higher plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. It is known to provide protection against macular degeneration associated with age through its ability to capture free oxygen and blue light in the retina. Thus, it is a potent antioxidant by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity. In the present study, lutein was produced by submerged fermentation from micro algae Spirulina platensis ARN 740. Fermentation process for production of lutein was optimized in two steps. In the first step, one-factor-at-a-time method was used to investigate the effects of medium constituents and fermentation parameters such as carbon source, nitrogen sources, growth temperature, inoculum size and pH of media on lutein production. Amongst the different carbon sources, glucose was found to be the best source for lutein production (0.62mg/l). Fermentation parameters study showed that maximum lutein production was obtained at 30 ±2°C at pH 9.0±0.5 after 8 days. In the second step, concentration of medium components was optimized using Response surface methodology (RSM). In all, three different carbon sources and six different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources were evaluated. In the basal medium, the yield of lutein was found to be 0.36mg/l while using RSM its yield was 0.86mg/l. The results showed two fold increase in yield using RSM as compared to basal media. Thus it was possible to optimize operating conditions using Response Surface Methodology to obtain maximum production of lutein from S. platensis, ARN 740.