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Anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory activity of Plumbago zeylanicus (Pz), Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and their combination
AIM: To explore anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory activity of Plumbago zeylanicus (Pz), Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and their combination.
Methodology: After Ethics Committee approval, the study was carried out using standardized aqueous extracts of Pz and Pe. Initially, platelet rich plasma (PRP) from both normal and hyperlipidemic male individuals (n=12/group) were incubated with Pe (0.15, 0.25, 0.5mg/ml) and Pz (0.0125, 0.025, 0.04mg/ml). Platelet aggregation was studied using ADP, Collagen and Epinephrine. Percentage inhibition (PI) of aggregation was calculated. Based on the results, the ratio of Pe+Pz combination was decided to study its effect on platelet aggregation. To study anti-inflammatory activity, models of acetic acid induced peritonitis in mice and carrageenan induced paw edema in rats were used. The animals were divided into groups, Sham control, Disease control and test drug treated viz. Aspirin, Pe, Pz, and Pe+Pz. The drugs/vehicle were administered 1 hour before inflammatory insult. After 3 hours, the protein content from peritoneal exudate and PI of paw edema were measured. Data was analyzed using ANOVA followed by post hoc tests.
Results: Pe and Pz per se inhibited platelet aggregation in both normal and hyperlipidemic subjects against all 3 aggregating agents in a concentration dependent manner (p<0.001). However the PI was less than that of Aspirin
(p<0.001). Pe+Pz showed PI comparable to that of Aspirin against ADP in normal subjects and against ADP and collagen in hyperlipidemic patients. Pe and Pz prevented the acetic acid induced rise in protein content of the peritoneal exudate (p<0.05) and exhibited trend to reduce paw edema. However, when combined, the effect of Pe+Pz was comparable to that of Aspirin.
Conclusion: Pe+Pz showed synergistic anti-platelet activity comparable to that of Aspirin. It also exerted anti-inflammatory effect comparable to that of aspirin and may serve as an alternative for aspirin.
Acknowledgement: 1. Dept. of AYUSH Govt. of India and 2. Zandu Pharmaceuticals Works Ltd.