Capsaicin and berberine inhibit the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and nitric oxide on LPS-stimulated mice
Inflammation is a beneficial host response to foreign challenge or tissue injury that leads ultimately to the restoration of tissue structure and function . Different chemical structural types of natural products exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and are considered to be potential drug candidates against the inflammation-related pathological processes. The capsaicin alkaloid, the major ingredient of hot pepper, has also been shown to elicit anti-inflammatory properties . Other important alkaloid is berberine, this is an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid isolated from many medicinal herbs, such as Hydrastis canadensis, Cortex phellodendri and Rhizoma coptidis . Berberine, has many pharmacological effects including: inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis, arrests cell cycle progress, and possesses anti-cancer effect . BALB/c mice were exposed to LPS application intraperitoneally (i.p.) (250µg/100g) in order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of capsaicin and berberine. Six different groups were used: (i) control group (none stimulus); (ii) LPS; (iii) LPS-corticosterone (i.p.); (iv) LPS-indomethacin (i.p.); (v) LPS-berberine (5mg/kg i.p.) and (vi) LPS-capsaicin (1.28mg/kg i.p.). The capsaicin reduced the nitric oxide levels and the releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) significantly p<0.001. While mice treated with berberine, only IL-1β and nitric oxide were significantly inhibited (p<0.05). These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory action of capsaicin and berberine is mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide inhibition. Both capsaicin and berberine may be promising drug candidates for ameliorating inflammatory diseases.
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