Elemental compositions, anti-anaemic, antimalarial and anti-trichomonal properties of the extract, fractions and some isolated compounds of Harungana madagascariensis stem bark
The stem bark extract of H. madagascariensis, its 5 fractions and some isolated compounds obtained from the n-hexane fraction were assesed for their anti – anaemia property, anti-malarial and anti-trichomonal activities on Plasmodium and Trichomonads species respectively. The sample pellet of the extract was also analysed to detect its elemental compositions. All the test substances had antitrichomonal activities; the isolated compound having the highest IC50 is HM5 with the value of 60.01µg/ml at 24h. The crude extract and the reference drug metronidazole exhibited IC50 of 187.0µg/ml and 1.56µg/ml respectively. The schizonticidal activities of the crude extract was found to be more pronounced in the prophylactic and suppressive tests on Plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis. When the fractions were taken through these two tests, the n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest suppressive activity (93.94%) and the aqueous fraction, the highest prophylactic activity (96.17%) at 40mg/kg. H. madagascariensis crude extract yielded an IC50 range of 0.052–0.517µg/ml on Plasmodium falciparum comparing remarkably with chloroquine, that gave 0.041µg/ml. The crude extract exhibited anti-anaemic activity with PCV of 40%, RBC count of 105 X 104 and Hb value of 66g after treatment compared with 30% PCV, 67 X104 RBC count and 36.5g Hb value obtained for the untreated animals.