Genotoxic effects of aquatic extract of Dinaric' populations of species Tussilago farfara L. (Asteraceae)
Leafs (Farfarae folium) and blossom (Farfarae flos) have always been used in both traditional and official medicine of Balkan countries . Besides, leafs are tasty wild vegetable in these areas . However, due to the contained pyrrolizidine alkaloids it is considered that it could cause specific genotoxic and other undesirable effects at people that apply it as phytofarmacs or as nutrient . Goal of this study was to examine genotoxicity of Dinarides' populations in „in vitro„ conditions of species Tussilago farfara. Floral material for this research was gathered in February and March (Farfarae flos) and during April and May (Farfarae folium) in Sarajevo surrounding (geographical coordinates). Floral samples were dried and exposed to double macceration in accordance with Ph. Yug. IV in order to receive extract that was used for getting 0.05% and 0.10% solutions. Evaluation of genotoxicity has been conducted by using Allium-test, along with observation of chromosome abnormality (divisional cylinder, irregular phases, multi-polarity, residual chromosomes, C-mitosis, etc.). Effects were noted after 4, 8, 12, and 24-hour treatment. Testing of differences among determined (experimental group) and expected (control group) was conducted by using X2 test. Extracts of both concentrations, leafs and blossom, were put to genotoxic effect in mitosis at meristematic cells of onion root. Genotoxicity is proportional to length of treatment and to concentration of solution. Aquatic extract of leaf showed distinguished genotoxicity after 4-hour treatment (mitotic index was 3.57%, and in control was 11.05%). A statistically significant difference in amount of 0.10% of leaf extracts (p≤0.05) was also determined. Similar relations were determined for blossom extract. Genotoxicity was also manifested through structure of chromosomes (stickiness, spiralitisation), and cytotoxic activity and certain variations in cell cycle.
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