HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and K562 cell replication inhibition by Ridolfia segetum (L.) Moris essential oil
Ridolfia segetum (L.) Moris (Apiaceae) is a plant widespread all over the Mediterranean area . Within a project aiming to find new agents inhibiting the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the essential oil of R. segetum collected in Sardinia (Italy) has been assayed on the two enzymatic associated activities of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP) and the ribonuclease H (RNase H) activities.
In biochemical assays, the extract inhibited the HIV-1 RT RDDP activity in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 0.094µg/mL, while it was inactive on the RNase H associated activity. Furthermore, the oil was cytotoxic on the K562 cell replication showing a CC50 value of 0.6µg/mL.
The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial part showed that the main components were alpha-phellandrene (50.8%), alpha-terpinolene (22.0%) beta-phellandrene (9,7%), dill apiole (6.6%) and, hence, the two observed biological effects, on HIV-1 RT and cell replication, may be due to different extract components.
References: 1 Tutin T.G. et al. (1993) Flora europaea (2° edition) Cambridge University Press.