Apoptotic effect of wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum L.) extract on Baf3p210 and Baf3p210-T315I leukemia cell lines
In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL fusion gene produces a chimeric tyrosine kinase which activity enhances the proliferation, uncontrolled cell growth, genomic instability and protection of DNA-damaged cells from apoptosis . The tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib has successfully been introduced in the treatment of CML. However, many patients develop resistance against Imatinib, which is often associated with mutations in BCR/ABL gene . Epidemiological studies have shown the consumption of whole grain and their products reduces the incidence of cancer. Phenolic compounds and flavonoids which also exist in wheatgrasses, have potent effect to reduce incidence of cancer [3–5]. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro effects of wheatgrass extract on Baf3p210 (Imatinib-sensitive) and Baf3p210-T315I (Imatinib-resistance) CML cell lines characterized by BCR-ABL fusion gene with increased-tyrosine kinase activity. Cells were incubated with wheatgrass extracts dissolved in water at final concentrations of 10%(w/v) during 48h. The supression of cell growth was demonstrated by trypan blue assay and apoptosis was detected by DNA laddering and morphologically. In consistent with our earlier data  the results of the present study showed that wheatgrass extracts inhibited the growth of both leukemia cells through the induction of apoptosis, compared to the controls. It has been determined that the death risk of T315I cells were 4.9 times higher and Baf3p210 cells were 7.6 times higher than their controls at 48th h (p<0.001). Our results suggest that wheatgrass shows its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through tyrosine kinase inhibition in vitro in leukemia cells with imatinib-resistance.
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