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Mechanism for anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive effect of the flower of Chrysanthemum indicum
The flower of Chrysanthemum indicum (Compositae) has been used traditionally for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases . In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive mechanism for pharmacological activity of the flower of Chrysanthemum indicum. Many studies suggest that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis play important roles in the processes of inflammation and carcinogenesis. Proinflammatory cytokine biosynthesis is regulated by NF-κB activity . The ethanol extract from the flower of Chrysanthemum indicum exhibited the significant inhibitory effects on generations of PGE2 (IC50=57.8µg/mL) and NO (IC50=45.8µg/mL) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. This extract obviously suppressed the mRNA and protein expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, This extract resulted in the cytosolic accumulation of IκBα via the suppression of phosphorylation of IκBα. It also blocked the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB through the inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The above results reveal that the flower of Chrysanthemum indicum possesses anti-inflammatory and/or cancer chemopreventive activity, due to the suppressive mechanism of IκBα/NF-κB signaling pathway.
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