CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Ultrasound Int Open 2024; 10: a21961599
DOI: 10.1055/a-2196-1599
Original Article

Bedside Clinical Hand-held Ultrasound in an Internal Medicine Department: The "Bed Med-Us" Experience of Codogno and its Clinical Utility in the Management of Diagnosis and Therapy in 1007 Patients

1   Internal Medicine, Codogno Hospital, Codogno, Italy
Emilio Mosconi
1   Internal Medicine, Codogno Hospital, Codogno, Italy
Maria Grazia Debellis
1   Internal Medicine, Codogno Hospital, Codogno, Italy
Eliana Palermo
1   Internal Medicine, Codogno Hospital, Codogno, Italy
Stella Provini
1   Internal Medicine, Codogno Hospital, Codogno, Italy
Manuela Mendozza
1   Internal Medicine, Codogno Hospital, Codogno, Italy
Laura Ricevuti
1   Internal Medicine, Codogno Hospital, Codogno, Italy
Ciro Esposito
1   Internal Medicine, Codogno Hospital, Codogno, Italy
› Author Affiliations


Purpose Handheld ultrasound (HH-US) answers simple clinical questions in emergencies. We performed conventional US with HH-US at the patient’s bedside (BED) during a medical visit (MED) (BED MED-US). The purpose of this prospective study is to estimate BED MED-US reliability, its clinical impact in helping the clinician to formulate correct diagnoses, and its ability to save time and money.

Materials and Methods 1007 patients (519 M; age:76.42) were assessed (from March 2021 to November 2022) in one or more districts. Final diagnosis was determined with clinical and reference tests (chest RX/CT, abdominal CT, endoscopy, etc.). Sensitivity, specificity, LR+ and LR-, and corresponding AUROC were evaluated. HH-US diagnoses were classified as: confirmation (HH-US revealed the sonographic signs that confirmed the clinical diagnosis) (CO), exclusion (HH-US excluded the presence of the ultrasound signs of other pathologies, in the clinical differential diagnosis) (EX), etiological (HH-US reaches diagnosis in clinically doubtful cases) (ET), or clinically relevant incidental (HH-US diagnoses that change the patient's process completely) (INC).

Results HH-US reliability: true-pos: 752; true-neg: 242; false-pos: 7; false-neg: 6 (sens: 99.1%, spec: 97.6%, LR+: 98.5; LR-: 00.15, AUROC: 0.997); clinical impact: CO-diagnosis: 21%; EX: 25%; ET: 47%; INC: 7%; saved time and money: approximately 35,572 minutes of work and 9324 euros.

Conclusion BED MED-US is a reliable clinical imaging system, with an important clinical impact both in diagnosis (etiological in 47%, incidental in 7%) and in the management of personnel resources.

Publication History

Received: 29 May 2023

Accepted after revision: 22 October 2023

Article published online:
05 January 2024

© 2024. The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial-License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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Bibliographical Record
Francesco Giangregorio, Emilio Mosconi, Maria Grazia Debellis, Eliana Palermo, Stella Provini, Manuela Mendozza, Laura Ricevuti, Ciro Esposito. Bedside Clinical Hand-held Ultrasound in an Internal Medicine Department: The "Bed Med-Us" Experience of Codogno and its Clinical Utility in the Management of Diagnosis and Therapy in 1007 Patients. Ultrasound Int Open 2024; 10: a21961599.
DOI: 10.1055/a-2196-1599
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