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Post-PCI Risk Assessment by Inflammation Activity According to Disease Acuity and Time from ProcedureFunding This study was supported by the Science Research Program through the CAU Thrombosis and Biomarker Center of Korea funded by the Chung-Ang University Gwangmyeong Hospital. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of any funding agencies.
Background High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) has been proposed as an indicator of inflammation and cardiovascular risk. However, little is known of the comparative temporal profile of hs-CRP and its relation to outcomes according to the disease acuity.
Methods We enrolled 4,263 East Asian patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stable disease. hs-CRP was measured at baseline and 1 month post-PCI. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: the composite occurrence of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and major bleeding were followed up to 4 years.
Result The AMI group (n = 2,376; 55.7%) had higher hs-CRPbaseline than the non-AMI group (n = 1,887; 44.3%) (median: 1.5 vs. 1.0 mg/L; p < 0.001), which remained higher at 1 month post-PCI (median: 1.0 vs. 0.9 mg/L; p = 0.001). During 1 month, a high inflammatory-risk phenotype (upper tertile: hs-CRPbaseline ≥ 2.4 mg/L) was associated with a greater MACE in the AMI group (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj]: 7.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.29–25.59; p < 0.001), but not in the non-AMI group (HRadj: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.12–4.40; p = 0.736). Between 1 month and 4 years, a high inflammatory-risk phenotype (upper tertile: hs-CRP1 month ≥ 1.6 mg/L) was associated with greater MACE compared to the other phenotype in both the AMI (HRadj: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.73–3.45; p < 0.001) and non-AMI groups (HRadj: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.80–3.94; p < 0.001).
Conclusion AMI patients have greater inflammation during the early and late phases than non-AMI patients. Risk phenotype of hs-CRPbaseline correlates with 1-month outcomes only in AMI patients. However, the prognostic implications of this risk phenotype appears similar during the late phase, irrespective of the disease acuity.
REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT04650529.
Received: 21 August 2022
Accepted: 10 January 2023
Accepted Manuscript online:
12 January 2023
Article published online:
24 February 2023
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