Subscribe to RSS
Periodontal disease in pregnancy: A comparative prospective study
Introduction Periodontal disease affects many pregnant women and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The object of this study was to evaluate women’s level of knowledge about this condition in pregnancy. We compared level of knowledge, participation in medical screening, and periodontal health status in pregnant women and nonpregnant controls.
Material and Methods This study included 141 pregnant and 141 nonpregnant women, examined by one examiner at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the University Hospital Muenster, Germany. With reference to periodontal health status, the Periodontal Screening Index was used and a questionnaire was designed to represent the level of knowledge and predisposing factors.
Results Pregnant women showed a strong tendency towards higher Periodontal Screening Indices than the nonpregnant controls (P=0.058). A strong positive correlation between participation in screenings and a lower Periodontal Screening Index was measured, but no direct relation between knowledge and periodontal health was detected. However, a better level of knowledge correlated noticeably with participation in screening programs. Educational attainment was found to be a main factor correlated with periodontal health and further factors such as medical screening and smoking habits. A great number of women felt they were not sufficiently informed about oral health aspects in pregnancy.
Conclusions As participation in screenings was a main item that positively correlated with healthier periodontal status, it had to be a focused element. The possible positive influence of knowledge regarding the participation in screening programs showed not only the need to spread awareness but also the need for proper education.
Received: 26 July 2022
Accepted: 22 November 2022
Article published online:
09 February 2023
© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany
- 1 Löe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy I. Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand 1963; 21: 533-551 DOI: 10.3109/00016356309011240.
- 2 Amar S, Chung KM. Influence of hormonal variation on the periodontium in women. Periodontol 2000 1994; 6: 79-87 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.1994.tb00028.x.
- 3 Vittek J, Gordon GG, Rappaprt SC. et al. Specific progesterone receptors in rabbit gingiva. J Periodontal Res 1982; 17: 657-661 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1982.tb01186.x.
- 4 Vittek J, Hernandez MR, Wenk EJ. et al. Specific estrogen receptors in human gingiva. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982; 54: 608-612 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1982.tb01186.x.
- 5 Lindhe J, Branemark PI. Changes in vascular permeability after local application of sex hormones. J Periodontal Res 1967; 2: 259-265 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1967.tb01897.x.
- 6 Lindhe J, Branemark PI. Changes in microcirculation after local application of sex hormones. J Periodontal Res 1967; 2: 185-193 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1967.tb01888.x.
- 7 Basavaraju A, Vijaya Durga S, Vanitha B. Variations in the oral anaerobic microbial flora in relation to pregnancy. J Clin Diagn Res 2012; 6: 1489-1491 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2012/4609.2540.
- 8 Gornstein RA, Lapp CA, Bustos-Valdes SM. et al. Androgens modulate interleukin-6 production by gingival fibroblasts in vitro. J Periodontol 1999; 70: 604-609 DOI: 10.1902/jop.19184.108.40.2064.
- 9 Sridama V, Pacini F, Yang SL. et al. Decrease level of helper T cells. A possible cause of immunodeficiency in pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 352-356 DOI: 10.1056/NEJM198208053070606.
- 10 Soorivamoorthy M, Gower DB. Hormonal influences on gingival tissue: relationship to periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 1989; 16: 201-208 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-051x.1989.tb01642.x.
- 11 Manrique-Corredor EJ, Orozco-Beltran D, Lopez-Pineda A. et al. Maternal periodontitis and preterm birth: systematic review and meta-analysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2019; 47: 243-251 DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12450.
- 12 Radochova V, Steoan M, Musilova IK. et al. Association between periodontal disease and preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. J Clin Periodontol 2019; 46: 189-196 DOI: 10.24425/fmc.2020.135799.
- 13 Musskopf ML, Rocha JM, Fiorini T. et al. Oral health related quality of life among pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. Braz Oral Res 2018; 32: e002 DOI: 10.1590/1807-3107bor-2018.vol32.0002.
- 14 Ferreira MC, Dias-Pereira AC, Branco-de-Almeida LS. et al. Impact of periodontal disease on quality of life: a systematic review. J Periodontal Res 2017; 52: 651-665 DOI: 10.1111/jre.12436.
- 15 Asa’ad FA, Ghousia R, Mahmoud NA. et al. Periodontal disease awareness among pregnant women in the central and easter regions of Saudi Arabia. J Investig Clin Dent 2015; 6: 8-15 DOI: 10.1111/jre.12436.
- 16 Barbieri W, Verzinhasse Peres S, De Britto Pereira C. et al. Sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women`s level of knowledge about oral health. Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2018; 16: 1-8 DOI: 10.1590/s1679-45082018ao4079.
- 17 Barmaniker S, Kok Kee L. Knowledge, attitude and practice of oral and dental healthcare in pregnant women. Oman Med J 2013; 28: 288-291 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2013.80.
- 18 Przeklasa-Bierowiec A, Jakubic A, Szczeklik K. et al. Awareness of oral health prophylaxis in pregnant women. Folia Med Cracov 2020; 3: 99-112 DOI: 10.24425/fmc.2020.135799.
- 19 González-Jaranay M, Téllez L, Roa-López A. et al. Periodontal status during pregnancy and postpartum. PLoS One 2017; 19: e0178234 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178234.
- 20 Kashetty M, Kumbhar S, Patil S. et al. Oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs among pregnant and nonpregnant women: A comparative study. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2018; 22: 164-170 DOI: 10.4103/jisp.jisp_319_17.
- 21 Boillot A, El Halabi B, Batty GD. et al. Education as a predictor of chronic periodontitis: A systematic review with meta-analysis population-based studies. PLoS One 2011; 6: e21508 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021508.
- 22 Kühle AM, Wacker J. Sociodemographic differences in health awareness and oral health in pregnant women. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2020; 80: 834-843 DOI: 10.1055/a-1205-0601.
- 23 Jordan R, Micheelis W. Fünfte Deutsche Mundgesundheitsstudie (DMS V). [The Fifth German Oral Health Study]. Köln: Deutscher Zahnärzteverlag; 2016
- 24 Tonetti MS, Chapple ILC, Jepsen S. et al. Primary and secondary prevention of periodontal and peri-implant diseases – Introduction to, and objectives of the 11th European workshop on periodontology consensus conference. J Clin Periodontol 2015; 42: S1-S4 DOI: 10.1111/jcpe.12382.
- 25 Leite FRM, Nascimento GG, Baake S. et al. Impact of smoking cessation on periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective longitudinal observational and interventional studies. Nicotine Tob Res 2019; 21: 1600-1608 DOI: 10.1093/ntr/nty147.
- 26 Vamos CA, Thompson EL, Avendano M. et al. Oral health promotion interventions during pregnancy: A systematic review. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2015; 43: 385-396 DOI: 10.1111/cdoe.12167.