CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Organic Materials 2022; 4(04): 261-267
DOI: 10.1055/a-1982-7432
Organic Thin Films: From Vapor Deposition to Functional Applications
Short Review

Three-Dimensional (3D) Device Architectures Enabled by Oxidative Chemical Vapor Deposition (oCVD)

a   Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
› Author Affiliations


For fabricating devices with three-dimensional (3D) architectures, oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) offers conformal nanocoatings of polymers with designable composition. Pure, uniform, and pinhole-free oCVD layers are achievable with sub-10 nm thickness and sub-1 nm roughness. The low substrate temperature used for oCVD allows direct deposition on to the thermally sensitive substrates desired for flexible and wearable devices. The oCVD polymers can graft to the underlying material. The covalent chemical bonds to the substrate create a robust interface that prevents delamination during the subsequent device fabrication steps and exposure to the environmental conditions of device operation. Both electrically conducting and semiconducting polymers have been synthesized by oCVD. Small ions act as dopants. The oCVD process allows for systematic tuning of electrical, optical, thermal, and ionic transport properties. Copolymerization with oCVD can incorporate specific organic functional groups into the resulting conjugated organic materials. This short review highlights recent examples of using oCVD polymer to fabricate organic and hybrid organic–inorganic devices. These optoelectronic, electrochemical, and sensing devices utilize 3D architectures made possible by the conformal nature of the oCVD polymers.


oCVD Chemistry and Process

Optoelectronic Devices

Electrochemical Devices

Sensing Devices

Conclusions and Outlook

Publication History

Received: 19 July 2022

Accepted after revision: 02 September 2022

Accepted Manuscript online:
18 November 2022

Article published online:
13 December 2022

© 2022. The author(s). This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (

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