Hamostaseologie 2022; 42(05): 301-307
DOI: 10.1055/a-1891-8158
Review Article

Transgender Medicine and Risk of Venous Thromboembolism

C.C. Van Bunderen*
1   Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
,
J. Leentjens*
2   Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud Institute of Health Sciences (RIHS), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
,
S. Middeldorp
2   Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud Institute of Health Sciences (RIHS), Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Gender dysphoria refers to psychological distress that results from an incongruence between gender identity and sex assigned at birth. Administration of sex hormones is most often used as a first step to develop and maintain physical characteristics consistent with gender identity. Gender-affirming hormone treatment is considered beneficial for the quality of life and reduction of depression. However, estrogen and androgen-lowering hormone therapies used in transwomen are in particular associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism. In this review, introduced by a clinical case, we provide an overview of the currently available medical therapies in transgender medicine, and put the associated increased risk of venous thromboembolism into perspective.

* Both authors contributed equally.




Publication History

Received: 03 April 2022

Accepted: 28 June 2022

Article published online:
02 November 2022

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