CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Horm Metab Res 2022; 54(08): 562-566
DOI: 10.1055/a-1878-9307

Long-COVID, Metabolic and Endocrine Disease

Stefan R. Bornstein
1   Department of Medicine III, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany
2   School of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine and Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King’s College London, London, UK
Diana Cozma
1   Department of Medicine III, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany
Margrit Kamel
3   Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany
Mawieh Hamad
4   Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, University of Sharjah College of Health Sciences, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
5   Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Naveed A. Khan
6   College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
6   College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Mohammad H. Semreen
7   College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
Charlotte Steenblock
1   Department of Medicine III, Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany
› Author Affiliations


In the aftermath of the corona pandemic, long-COVID or post-acute COVID-19 syndrome still represents a great challenge, and this topic will continue to represent a significant health problem in the coming years. At present, the impact of long-COVID on our health system cannot be fully assessed but according to current studies, up to 40% of people who have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 suffer from clinically relevant symptoms of long-COVID syndrome several weeks to months after the acute phase. The main symptoms are chronic fatigue, dyspnea, and various cognitive symptoms. Initial studies have shown that people with overweight and diabetes mellitus have a higher risk of developing long-COVID associated symptoms. Furthermore, repeated treatment of acute COVID-19 and long-COVID with steroids can contribute to long-term metabolic and endocrine disorders. Therefore, a structured program with rehabilitation and physical activity as well as optimal dietary management is of utmost importance, especially for patients with metabolic diseases and/or long-COVID. Furthermore, the removal of autoantibodies and specific therapeutic apheresis procedures could lead to a significant improvement in the symptoms of long-COVID in individual patients.

Publication History

Received: 16 March 2022

Accepted after revision: 06 April 2022

Accepted Manuscript online:
20 June 2022

Article published online:
09 August 2022

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