CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Thromb Haemost 2022; 122(09): 1542-1548
DOI: 10.1055/a-1753-2748
Stroke, Systemic or Venous Thromboembolism

DOAC Dipstick Testing Can Reliably Exclude the Presence of Clinically Relevant DOAC Concentrations in Circulation

Sandra Margetić
1   Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb County, Croatia
,
Ivana Ćelap
1   Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb County, Croatia
,
Arijana Lovrenčić Huzjan
2   Department of Neurology, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb County, Croatia
,
Marijana Bosnar Puretić
2   Department of Neurology, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb County, Croatia
,
Sandra Šupraha Goreta
3   Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
,
Anesa Čajević Glojnarić
1   Department of Clinical Chemistry, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb County, Croatia
,
Diana Delić Brkljačić
4   Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb County, Croatia
,
Pavao Mioč
4   Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb County, Croatia
,
Job Harenberg
5   DOASENSE GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany
6   University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
,
Svetlana Hetjens
7   Department of Medical Statistics and Biomathematics, University of Heidelberg Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg, Germany
,
Christel Weiss
7   Department of Medical Statistics and Biomathematics, University of Heidelberg Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Funding The study was part of the research project entitled “New oral anticoagulants: relationship between drug concentration and anticoagulant effect” (IP-2016–06–8208), which was funded by the Croatian Scientific Foundation.

Abstract

In certain clinical situations, it is necessary to determine whether clinically relevant plasma levels of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are present. We examined whether qualitative testing of DOACs in urine samples can exclude DOAC plasma concentrations of ≥30 ng/mL. This prospective single-center cohort study included consecutive patients treated with an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor (DXI) (apixaban, n = 31, rivaroxaban, n = 53) and direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) (dabigatran, n = 44). We aimed to define the negative predictive value (NPV) and other statistical parameters of detecting DXIs and DTIs by DOAC Dipstick at plasma concentrations of ≥30 ng/mL. We also determined the best-fit threshold plasma levels using chromogenic substrate assays by logistic regression analysis. Between July 2020 and July 2021, 128 eligible patients (mean age 66 years, 55 females) were included into the study. The NPVs and sensitivities for DXI and DTI of DOAC Dipstick were 100% at ≥30 ng/mL plasma, for specificities 6 and 21% and for positive predictive values 62 and 72%, respectively. All diagnostic statistical tests improved to values between 86 and 100% at best-fitting plasma thresholds of ≥14 ng/mL for DXI and ≥19 ng/mL for DTI. Visual analysis using the DOAC Dipstick was 100% in agreement with that of the optoelectronic DOASENSE Reader for all the three DOACs.

DOAC Dipstick testing can reliably exclude the presence of DOACs in urine samples at best-fitting thresholds of >14 and >19 ng/mL in plasma. The performance of the DOAC Dipstick at detecting lower DOAC concentrations in plasma requires confirmation.



Publication History

Received: 16 December 2021

Accepted: 24 January 2022

Accepted Manuscript online:
27 January 2022

Article published online:
10 March 2022

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