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Incidence and Outcomes Associated with 6,841 Isolated Distal Deep Vein Thromboses in Patients with 13 Common CancersFunding The collection of cancer incidence data used in this study was supported by the California Department of Public Health pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Section 103885; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Program of Cancer Registries, under cooperative agreement 5NU58DP006344; the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program under contract HHSN261201800032I awarded to the University of California, San Francisco, contract HHSN261201800015I awarded to the University of Southern California, and contract HHSN261201800009I awarded to the Public Health Institute. The ideas and opinions expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the State of California, Department of Public Health, the National Cancer Institute, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or their contractors and subcontractors. T.W. is supported by UL1TR001860 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institutes of Health.
Introduction The epidemiology of isolated distal deep venous thrombosis (iDDVT) among cancer patients is not well described, particularly the incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism (rVTE) and effect on mortality by cancer type.
Methods The cumulative incidence (CI) of iDDVT was determined for patients with 13 common cancers between 2005 and 2017 using the California Cancer Registry linked to the California Patient Discharge and Emergency Department Utilization datasets. The CI of rVTE was calculated and association of incident cancer-associated thrombosis (CT) location with rVTE was determined using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The association of incident CT location with overall and cancer-specific mortality was determined using Cox models, stratified by cancer site, and adjusted for individual characteristics.
Results Among 942,109 cancer patients, CT occurred in 62,003 (6.6%): of these, 6,841 (11.0%) were iDDVT. Compared with more proximal sites of CT, iDDVT was associated with similar risk for rVTE. IDDVT was associated with increased mortality across all cancer types when compared with patients without CT (hazard ratio: 1.56–4.60). The effect of iDDVT on mortality was similar to that of proximal DVT (pDVT) for most cancers except lung, colorectal, bladder, uterine, brain, and myeloma, where iDDVT was associated with a lesser association with mortality.
Conclusion iDDVT represented 11% of CT. The risk of rVTE after iDDVT was similar to other sites of CT and rVTE occurred in more proximal locations after an incident iDDVT. IDDVT was associated with increased mortality and this effect was similar to that of pulmonary embolism or pDVT for most cancer types.
A.M., A.B., and T.W. designed the study, acquired and analyzed the data, and drafted the manuscript. All authors made revisions and approved the final manuscript.
Received: 22 July 2021
Accepted: 14 January 2022
17 January 2022 (online)
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