CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Planta Medica International Open 2022; 9(01): e80-e89
DOI: 10.1055/a-1729-3654
Original Papers

Time-Dependent Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Lipid Extract from Macrocystis pyrifera on Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling in Human THP-1 Monocytes

Jamie Mei Lin Kok
1   Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Georgina Dowd
2   The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited, Nelson, New Zealand
Jaydee Cabral
3   Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
Lyn Wise
1   Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
› Author Affiliations


Seaweeds reportedly contain anti-inflammatory compounds; however, little is known about the therapeutic potential of Macrocystis pyrifera. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of a methanol:chloroform extract, chromatographic fractions, and fatty acids identified from M. pyrifera (Linnaeus) C. Agardh. In human THP-1 monocytes stimulated with the Toll-like receptor 2 agonist lipoteichoic acid, the extract decreased mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 to varied degrees at nontoxic concentrations. The greatest anti-inflammatory effects were elicited when the extract was applied between 6 h prior to, and 6 h after, the stimuli. Reduced levels of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling proteins were observed in extract-treated cells, with a significant decrease in the myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein abundance relative to stimulated THP-1 cells. Chromatographic fractionation of the extract yielded 40 fractions, of which fraction F25 exhibited the greatest inhibition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production in activated THP-1 cells. Fatty acids abundant within the extract and F25 were identified then tested, individually and in combination, for their anti-inflammatory effects. Myristic acid, palmitoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid, but not the fatty acid combination, inhibited lipoteichoic acid-stimulated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production without compromising THP-1 cell viability. These findings indicate that the fatty acid-rich extract and fraction from M. pyrifera provide anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects that may be beneficial for use as a therapeutic.

Supplementary Material

Publication History

Received: 19 September 2021
Received: 13 December 2021

Accepted: 22 December 2021

Article published online:
15 March 2022

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