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Resistance Training and High-intensity Interval Training Improve Cardiometabolic Health in High Risk Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-anaylsis
Progressive resistance training (PRT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improve cardiometabolic health in older adults. Whether combination PRT+HIIT (COMB) provides similar or additional benefit is less clear. This systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials examined effects of PRT, HIIT and COMB compared to non-exercise control in older adults with high cardiometabolic risk. Databases were searched until January 2021, with study quality assessed using the PEDro scale. Risk factor data was extracted and analysed using RevMan V.5.3. We analysed 422 participants from nine studies (7 PRT, n=149, 1 HIIT, n=10, 1 COMB, n=60; control n=203; mean age 68.1±1.4 years). Compared to control, exercise improved body mass index (mean difference (MD) −0.33 [−0.47, −0.20], p≤0.0001), body fat% (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.71 [−1.34, −0.08], p=0.03), aerobic capacity (SMD 0.41 [0.05, 0.78], p=0.03), low-density lipoprotein (SMD −0.27 [−0.52, −0.01], p=0.04), and blood glucose (SMD −0.31 [−0.58, −0.05], p=0.02). Therefore, PRT, HIIT and COMB can improve cardiometabolic health in older adults with cardiometabolic risk. Further research is warranted, particularly in HIIT and COMB, to identify the optimal exercise prescription, if any, for improving older adults cardiometabolic health. (PROSPERO: CRD42019128527).
Received: 12 May 2021
Accepted: 26 July 2021
Accepted Manuscript online:
28 July 2021
Article published online:
07 October 2021
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