Int J Sports Med 2022; 43(03): 206-218
DOI: 10.1055/a-1560-6183

Resistance Training and High-intensity Interval Training Improve Cardiometabolic Health in High Risk Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-anaylsis

1   Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health, UNSW Sydney, NSW, Australia
1   Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health, UNSW Sydney, NSW, Australia
1   Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health, UNSW Sydney, NSW, Australia
1   Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health, UNSW Sydney, NSW, Australia
› Author Affiliations


Progressive resistance training (PRT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improve cardiometabolic health in older adults. Whether combination PRT+HIIT (COMB) provides similar or additional benefit is less clear. This systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled trials examined effects of PRT, HIIT and COMB compared to non-exercise control in older adults with high cardiometabolic risk. Databases were searched until January 2021, with study quality assessed using the PEDro scale. Risk factor data was extracted and analysed using RevMan V.5.3. We analysed 422 participants from nine studies (7 PRT, n=149, 1 HIIT, n=10, 1 COMB, n=60; control n=203; mean age 68.1±1.4 years). Compared to control, exercise improved body mass index (mean difference (MD) −0.33 [−0.47, −0.20], p≤0.0001), body fat% (standardised mean difference (SMD) −0.71 [−1.34, −0.08], p=0.03), aerobic capacity (SMD 0.41 [0.05, 0.78], p=0.03), low-density lipoprotein (SMD −0.27 [−0.52, −0.01], p=0.04), and blood glucose (SMD −0.31 [−0.58, −0.05], p=0.02). Therefore, PRT, HIIT and COMB can improve cardiometabolic health in older adults with cardiometabolic risk. Further research is warranted, particularly in HIIT and COMB, to identify the optimal exercise prescription, if any, for improving older adults cardiometabolic health. (PROSPERO: CRD42019128527).

Supplementary Material

Publication History

Received: 12 May 2021

Accepted: 26 July 2021

Accepted Manuscript online:
28 July 2021

Article published online:
07 October 2021

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

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