Horm Metab Res 2021; 53(09): 588-593
DOI: 10.1055/a-1559-3424
Endocrine Care

Metastatic Risk Profile of Microscopic Lymphatic and Venous Invasion in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

1   Department of Visceral, Vascular and Endocrine Surgery, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany
,
Kerstin Lorenz
1   Department of Visceral, Vascular and Endocrine Surgery, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany
,
Frank Weber
2   Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
,
Henning Dralle
1   Department of Visceral, Vascular and Endocrine Surgery, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany
2   Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

The metastatic risk profile of microscopic lymphatic and venous invasion in medullary thyroid cancer is ill-defined. This evidence gap calls for evaluation of the suitability of microscopic lymphatic and venous invasion at thyroidectomy for prediction of lymph node and distant metastases in medullary thyroid cancer. In this study of 484 patients with medullary thyroid cancer who had≥5 lymph nodes removed at initial thyroidectomy, microscopic lymphatic and venous invasion were significantly associated with greater primary tumor size (27.6 vs. 14.5 mm, and 30.8 vs. 16.2 mm) and more frequent lymph node metastasis (97.0 vs. 25.9%, and 85.2 vs. 39.5%) and distant metastasis (25.0 vs. 5.1%, and 32.8 vs. 7.3%). Prediction of lymph node metastases by microscopic lymphatic invasion was better than prediction of distant metastases by microscopic venous invasion regarding sensitivity (97.0 vs. 32.8%) and positive predictive value (58.4 vs. 39.2%); comparable regarding negative predictive value (98.5 vs. 90.5%) and accuracy (80.4 vs. 85.1%); and worse regarding specificity (74.1 vs. 92.7%). On multivariable logistic regression, microscopic lymphatic invasion predicted lymph node metastasis better (odds ratio [OR] 65.6) than primary tumor size (OR 4.6 for tumors>40 mm and OR 2.7 for tumors 21–40 mm, relative to tumors≤20 mm), whereas primary tumor size was better in predicting distant metastasis (OR 8.3 for tumors>40 mm and OR 3.9 for tumors 21–40 mm, relative to tumors≤20 mm) than microscopic venous invasion (OR 3.2). These data show that lymphatic invasion predicts lymph node metastases better in medullary thyroid cancer than venous invasion heralds distant metastases.



Publication History

Received: 10 April 2021

Accepted after revision: 20 July 2021

Article published online:
08 September 2021

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany