Hamostaseologie 2021; 41(03): 197-205
DOI: 10.1055/a-1447-6667
Review Article

Current Concepts of Pathogenesis and Treatment of Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Franziska C. Zeeh
1   Division of Hematology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
,
Sara C. Meyer
1   Division of Hematology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland
2   Division of Hematology and Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms are hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysregulated proliferation of mature myeloid blood cells. They can present as polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, or myelofibrosis and are characterized by constitutive activation of JAK2 signaling. They share a propensity for thrombo-hemorrhagic complications and the risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Attention has also been drawn to JAK2 mutant clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential as a possible precursor state of MPN. Insight into the pathogenesis as well as options for the treatment of MPN has increased in the last years thanks to modern sequencing technologies and functional studies. Mutational analysis provides information on the oncogenic driver mutations in JAK2, CALR, or MPL in the majority of MPN patients. In addition, molecular markers enable more detailed prognostication and provide guidance for therapeutic decisions. While JAK2 inhibitors represent a standard of care for MF and resistant/refractory PV, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only therapy with a curative potential in MPN so far but is reserved to a subset of patients. Thus, novel concepts for therapy are an important need, particularly in MF. Novel JAK2 inhibitors, combination therapy approaches with ruxolitinib, as well as therapeutic approaches addressing new molecular targets are in development. Current standards and recent advantages are discussed in this review.



Publication History

Received: 04 February 2021

Accepted: 17 March 2021

Article published online:
30 June 2021

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