Laryngorhinootologie 2021; 100(05): 402-412
DOI: 10.1055/a-1355-7642
CME-Fortbildung

Leitliniengerechte Behandlung von funktioneller Hypersalivation bei Kindern und Erwachsenen

Functional Hypersalivation in children and adults – therapy under consideration of recent guideline
Armin Steffen
,
Saskia Rohrbach-Volland

Die Kontrolle des Speichelflusses kann durch verschiedene Erkrankungen oder auch medizinische Maßnahmen schwer beeinträchtigt sein. Die daraus resultierende funktionelle Hypersalivation hat nicht nur unmittelbare medizinische Konsequenzen wie die Pneumonie bei Speichelaspiration, sondern führt die Betroffenen oft in die soziale Isolation und beeinträchtigt die Lebensqualität schwer. Gerade als medikamentöse Therapie gibt es nun sowohl für Kinder und Jugendliche als auch für Erwachsene spezifische Zulassungen, über die der Artikel informieren möchte.

Abstract

A functional hypersalivation reduces patientʼs quality of life by the need of repeated changes of cloths, skin damage around the mouth and reduced personal contacts. The indication to treat hypersalivation is justified furthermore when respiratory infections by saliva aspiration occur. Transnasal swallowing endoscopy allows to evaluate sufficiently dysphagia with limited risks. With this method therapy options can be judged for effectiveness. There are other additional radiologic assessments to complete diagnostic. Swallowing therapy should be initiated as first-line approach for hypersalivation and offers several treatment concepts to overcome the syndrome. Glycopyrrolate bromid received approval for children and adolescents as it reduces saliva flow relevantly with limited risk. Other anticholinergic drugs are restricted in use because of their side effects and off-label-use situation. Ultrasound guided injections of botulinum toxine in salivary glands are an established treatment option since decades. Meanwhile, the evidence for this method has improved, so Incobotulinum toxine is an approved therapy for chronic hypersalivation in adults, whereby new injections are needed about every four months. In the light of effective medical options, surgical approaches such as salivary duct relocation are recommended less often today because of invasiveness and failure. Radiotherapy is reserved mainly for neurodegenerative diseases and shows good response, but the cancer induction risks need to be discussed. A close follow-up regime is necessary to establish compliance not only by the patient, but also by his family and caregivers. By this, treatment effects can be optimized and therapies can be adjusted individually.



Publication History

Publication Date:
29 April 2021 (online)

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