Hamostaseologie 2020; 40(03): 337-347
DOI: 10.1055/a-1175-6783
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Role of Platelet Cytoskeleton in Platelet Biomechanics: Current and Emerging Methodologies and Their Potential Relevance for the Investigation of Inherited Platelet Disorders

Carlo Zaninetti
1  Department of Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
2  Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia and IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy
3  PhD Course of Experimental Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
,
Laura Sachs
1  Department of Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
,
Raghavendra Palankar
1  Department of Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

12 February 2020

11 May 2020

Publication Date:
29 July 2020 (online)

Abstract

Cytoskeleton is composed of more than 100 proteins and represents a dynamic network of the cellular cytoplasm. Cytoskeletal functions include spatial organization of cellular components, structural connection of the cell with external environment, and biomechanical force generation. Cytoskeleton takes part, at different levels, in all phases of platelet biogenesis: megakaryocyte (MK) differentiation, MK maturation, and platelet formation. In addition, it also plays a major role in each stage of platelet function. Inherited platelet disorders (IPDs) are a group of rare diseases featured by low platelet count and/or impaired platelet function. Over the past decade, the investigation of platelet biomechanics has become a major and highly relevant theme of research due to its implications at every stage of development of human life. The initial use of diverse biophysical techniques (e.g., micropipette aspiration, atomic force and scanning ion conductance microscopy, real-time deformability cytometry) started unraveling biomechanical features of platelets that are expected to provide new explanations for physiological and pathological mechanisms. Although the impact of cytoskeletal alterations has been largely elucidated in various IPDs' pathogenesis, the understanding of their impact on biomechanical properties of platelets represents an unmet need. Regarding IPDs, improving biomechanical studies seems promising for diagnostic and prognostic implications. Potentially, these characteristics of platelets may also be used for the prediction of bleeding risk. This review addresses the current available methods for biophysical investigations of platelets and the possible implementations in the field of IPDs.

Contributions

CZ, LS and RP wrote the paper. LS and RP performed CLSM, SEM, AFM and RT-DC experiments, analyzed and interpretaed the data and prepared figures.