Drug Res (Stuttg) 2020; 70(05): 188-198
DOI: 10.1055/a-1131-7856
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

A Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Recapitulation on Hamelia patens

Gazala Noor
1   Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, India
Md.Afroz Ahmad
1   Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, India
1   Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, India
Tarique Mahmood
1   Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, India
Muhammad Arif
2   Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, India
Mohammad Khushtar
1   Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, India
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 04 February 2020

accepted 02 March 2020

Publication Date:
30 March 2020 (online)


The world health organization reports that 80% of the population living within the developing countries depends basically on traditional medicine for his or her primary health care. Quite half the entire world's population still depends entirely on plants for medicines, and plants provides the active ingredients to the most traditional medical products. Hamelia patens that belong to the family Rubiaceae, is mainly found in tropical and sub-tropical areas. It is used in folk medicine against a wide range of diseases such as athlete’s foot, skin problems, insect sting, psychiatric disorder, rheumatism, headache, asthma, dysentery, menses, ovarian and uterine disorders. Hamelia consists of an important bioactive constituent such as oxindole alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic content. Due to the presence of chlorogenic acid and epicatechin constituent in the methanolic extract of Hamelia patens, there is a noticeable anti-hyperglycemic activity as well as it possesses antioxidant activity. Acute and sub-acute toxicity study has been performed on Hamelia patens which shows that it is safe and can be used for humans. Against fungi and bacteria, the ethanol leaf extract of Hamelia has a maximum inhibitory effect. The plant has various therapeutic effects like anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, anthelmintic, antidepressant, hepatoprotective, antiurolithiatic, diuretic, wound healing, and many others. In this article, we have discussed chemical constituent, pharmacological activity and traditional use of Hamelia patens.

  • References

  • 1 Van Wyk BE, Wink M. Phytomedicines, Herbal Drugs, and Poisons. University of Chicago Press; 2015
  • 2 Ashok DB, Thomas PA. Current status of herbal drugs in India: An overview. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007; 41: 1-11
  • 3 Maitreya BB. An overview of Ethnomedicinal plants of family Rubiaceae from Sabarmati river of gujarat state, India. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2015; 6: 4476-4480
  • 4 Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: Issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2014; 10 4: 177
  • 5 Ramadoss MS, Koumaravelou K. Regulatory compliance of herbal medicines-A review. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2019; 10: 3127-3135
  • 6 Elias TS, Pooler MR. The identity of the African firebush (Hamelia) in the ornamental nursery trade. Hort Science 2004; 39: 1224-1226
  • 7 Sweet R. Sweet’s hortus britannicus: Or, a catalogue of all the plants indigenous or cultivated in the gardens of great Britain. London: J Ridgway; 1830: 123
  • 8 Renjumol R, Radhamany PM. Differential activity of four selected enzymes in the pistils and pollen grains of two varieties of hamelia patens jacq. (rubiaceae) following compatible and incompatible pollination. Int J of Adv Res 2017; 5: 636-644
  • 9 Bano J, Santra S, Menghani E. Hamelia patens a potential plant from Rubiaceae family: A review. Int J Sci Eng Res 2015; 6: 960-973
  • 10 Louis F, Renjumol R, Radhamany PM. Studies on the pattern of self incompatibility in relation to morphological and molecular diversity in Hamelia patens JACQ. (Rubiaceae). Int J Bot Res 2017; 7: 17-26
  • 11 Florence A, Joselin J, Sukumaran S. et al. Screening of phytochemical constituents from certian flower extracts. Int J Pharm Rev Res 2014; 4: 152-159
  • 12 Aquino R, Ciavatta ML, De Simone F. et al. A flavanone glycoside from Hamelia patens. Phytochem 1990; 29: 2359-2360
  • 13 Taylor L. The healing power of rain forest herbs, scarlet bush. Raintree Nutrition, Inc. Available from URL: http:// www.rain-tree.com/quinine.2005
  • 14 Singh S, Vyas M. Comparative in-vitro biological study of aerial parts of plant Hamelia patens. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2016; 7: 1793-1808
  • 15 Reimers Lara, Eduardo A, David J. et al. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in papantla, veracruz, mexico. Plants 2019; 8: 246
  • 16 Shrisha DL, An K. Bioprospecting of selected medicinal plants for antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. J Med Plants Res 2011; 5: 4087-4093
  • 17 Ahmad A, Pandurangan A, Singh N. et al. A mini review on chemistry and biology of Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae). Pharmacog J 2012; 4: 1-4
  • 18 Levey DJ. Facultative ripening in Hamelia patens (Rubiaceae): Effects of fruit removal and rotting. Oecologia 1987; 74: 203-208
  • 19 Chauhan S, Galetto L. Reproductive biology of the Hamelia patens Jacq.(Rubiaceae) in northern India. J Plant Reprod Biol 2009; 1: 63-71
  • 20 Elbert L, Little JR. Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin islands. US Department of Agriculture, 2nd volume. 1964
  • 21 Borchers LC. Firebush every bit a Texas superstar.Victoria Country Master Gardener. 2014 Available at: https://www.victoriaadvocate.com/news/firebush-every-bit-a-texas-superstar
  • 22 Gilman EF, Meerow A. Hamelia Patens, Fire Bush, Scarlet Bush. University of Florida. UF IFAS. Extension. FPS. 2014 237.
  • 23 Davis TD, George SW, Upadhyaya A. et al. Propagation of firebush (Hamelia patens) by stem cuttings. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 1991; 9: 57-61
  • 24 Nancy B, Cammie D. Growing, planting and promoting Florida native plants for sustainable landscape. Florida Association of Native Nurseries (FANN) 2011. The Hamelia Mess. Available from URL:https://www. floridanativenurseries.org/info/plants/the-hamelia-mess
  • 25 Renjumol R, Radhamany PM. Differential activity of four selected enzymes in the pistils and pollen grains of two varities of Hamelia patens JACQ. (Rubiaceae) following compatible and incompatible pollination. Int J Adv Res 2017; 5: 636-644
  • 26 David PV, Carlos M, Teresa PN. et al. A new monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid from Hamelia patens micropropagated plantlets. Natural Product communication 2012; 7: 1441-1444
  • 27 Surana A, Wagh R. Phytopharmacological Review of Hamelia patens. Int J Pharm Res Scholar 2015; 4: 290-295
  • 28 Kang TH, Matsumoto K, Tohda M. et al. Pteropodine and isopteropodine positively modulate the function of rat muscarinic M1 and 5-HT2 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocyte. Eur J Pharmacol 2002; 44: 39-45
  • 29 Rios MY, Aguilar AB. Indole alkaloids, terpenes, sterols and flavonoids from the leaves of Hamelia patens Jacquin (Rubiaceae). Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales 2006; 11: 1-5
  • 30 Paz JE, Contreras CR, Munguía AR. et al. Phenolic content and antibacterial activity of extracts of Hamelia patens obtained by different extraction methods. Braz J Microbiol 2017; 49: 656-661
  • 31 Bano J, Santra S, Menghani E. Evaluation and characterization of bioactive compound of Hamelia patens plant with the GC-MS spectroscopy. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2018; 11: 232-235
  • 32 Surana AR, Wagh RD. Pharmacognostic study and development of quality parameters of Hamelia patens jacq. stems. Scholor Res Lib 2016; 8: 6-13
  • 33 Suarez JV, Nieto A, Estrada JM. et al. Anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities of Hamelia patens and its chemical constituents. Pharmaceutical Biology 2016; 54: 1822-1830
  • 34 Singh S. A comparative “In-vitro anti-inflammatory activity” study of aerial parts of plant Hamelia patens. Int J Innov Sci Res 2016; 5: 855-861
  • 35 Vijay R B, Rao MV, Acharya Y. et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-peroxidative effect of Hamelia patens leaf extract on carrageenan induced rat paw edema. Elixer Pharm 2016; 97: 41934-41937
  • 36 Rajendran P, Nandakumar N, Rengarajan T. et al. Antioxidants and human diseases. Clin chim acta 2014; 436: 332-347
  • 37 Perez MJ, Delgado MC, Ortíz TT. et al. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Hamelia patens extracts. Pak J Pharm Sci 2016; 29: 343-348
  • 38 Surana AR, Kumbhare MR, Wagh RD. Estimation of total phenolic and total flavonoid content and assessment of in vitro antioxidant activity of extracts of Hamelia patens Jacq. stems. Res J Phytochem 2016; 10: 67-74
  • 39 Pandurangan A, Ahmad A, Koul S. et al. Blood glucose lowering potential of Hamelia Patens stem in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Global J Pharm Educ Res 2013; 2: 61-65
  • 40 Andrade A, Escandón S, Garcia V. Hypoglycemic effect of Hamelia patens Jacq., aerial part in STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacol Online 2015; 3: 65-69
  • 41 Rugerio C, Ordaz C, Becerra E. et al. “Diabetes and metabolism disorders medicinal plants: A glance at the past and a look to the future 2018”: Antihyperglycemic activity of Hamelia patens Jacq. extracts. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018 2018. 7926452
  • 42 Okoye EL, Ezeogo JI. Antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts of Hamelia patens on some selected clinical samples. J Complement Alternat Med Res 2016; 1: 1-7
  • 43 Narasaiah RL. Sugunakar Shankar PC. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticals from Hamelia patens aqueous leaf extract. J Glob Trends Pharm Sci 2018; 9: 5568-5574
  • 44 Khandelwal S, Sharma P, Tribhuwan S. et al. Anthelmintic and antimicrobial activity of Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae). Int J Nat Prod Res 2012; 1: 54-56
  • 45 Abubacker MN, Sathya C, Prabakaran R. In vitro antifungal potentials of Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae) aqueous extracts of leaves, flowers and fruits. Biosci Biotech Res Asia 2013; 10: 699-704
  • 46 Cornejo J, Salinas M, Díaz A. et al. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, liver profile test, and mutagenic activity of five plants used in traditional mexican medicine. Braz J Pharmacog 2015; 25: 22-28
  • 47 Pérez GS, Zavala S, Vargas SR. et al. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Hamelia patens methanol extract in rats and mice. Phytother Res 1996; 10: 686-688
  • 48 Yitzhak K, Guntupalli S, Venugopalaiah P. et al. Antilithiatic activity of ethanolic extract of Hamelia patens (Leaves) on ethylene glycol induced lithiasis in rats. Int J Curr Trend Pharm Res 2014; 2: 596-612
  • 49 Vijay R B, Raghavendra R, Bala S. et al. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Hamelia Patens leaf in animal models. Adv Biotechnol Microbiol 2016; 1(1): 24-27
  • 50 Vijay R B, Raghavendra R, Kumar R. et al. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Hamelia Patens leaf on ethanolic extraction in animal models. Int J Adv Res 2016; 4: 961-966
  • 51 Surana AR, Wagh RD. GC-MS profiling and antidepressant-like effect of the extracts of Hamelia patens in animal model. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2017; 12: 410-416
  • 52 Reyes R, Rivera J, Oropeza M. et al. Methanol extracts of Hamelia patens containing oxindole alkaloids relax KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium. Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27: 1617-1620
  • 53 Alonso AJ, Balleza S, Hernández A. et al. Toxicity and antinociceptive effects of Hamelia patens. Braz J Pharmacog 2015; 25: 170-176
  • 54 Gomez A, Rucinski JC, Balick MJ. et al. Double incision wound healing bioassay using Hamelia patens from El Salvador. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 1 88 169-173
  • 55 Ocampo R, Balick MJ. Plants of semillas sagradas: An ethnomedicinal garden in Costa Rica. 2009 first edition
  • 56 Kumar S, Bodla R, Kant R. Non-targeted analysis and cytotoxic activity of Hamelia patens JACQ. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9: 1093-1099
  • 57 Mena G, Caamal E, Cantillo Z. et al. In vitro cytotoxic activity of nine plants used in Mayan traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 121: 462-465
  • 58 Husna A, Bhavya M, Manjushree R. et al. Inhibitors of acetyl cholinestrase from Hamelia patens for alzheimer disease by using danio rerio as a model organism. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016; 5: 701-709
  • 59 Giovannini P, Howes MJ. Medicinal plants used to treat snakebite in Central America: Review and assessment of scientific evidence. J Ethnopharmacol 2017; 199: 240-256
  • 60 Suárez A, Diaz B, Tillett S. et al. Leishmanicidal activity of alkaloids from Hamelia patens. Scient J Exp Faculty Sci 2008; 16: 148-155
  • 61 Shahajirao KS, Gorakh RK, Ramchandra SS. et al. Hamelia patens Jacq flower extract as indicator for acid-base titration and development of litmus paper. Res J Pharm Dosage Form Technol 2019; 11: 178-180