Horm Metab Res 2020; 52(04): 220-227
DOI: 10.1055/a-1113-7777
Endocrine Care
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Treatment Outcomes of Primary Hypophysitis: A Monocentric Cohort

Seda Hanife Oguz
1  Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
,
Figen Soylemezoglu
2  Department of Pathology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
,
Suleyman Nahit Sendur
1  Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
,
Melike Mut
3  Department of Neurosurgery, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
,
Kader Karli Oguz
4  Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
,
Selcuk Dagdelen
1  Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
,
Tomris Erbas
1  Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 29 October 2019

accepted 27 January 2020

Publication Date:
08 April 2020 (online)

Abstract

Primary hypophysitis (PH) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland. The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, disease management, and outcomes of cases with PH. Medical records of PH patients admitted to Hacettepe University Hospital between 1999 and 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. Paraffin-embedded pathology blocks were obtained for both re-examination and IgG4 immunostaining. Twenty PH patients (15 females, 5 males) were evaluated. Mean age at diagnosis was 41.5±13.4 years. Some form of hormonal disorder was present in 63.2% of cases, hypogonadism (66.6%) being the most common. Panhypopituitarism was present in 36.8%. All patients had pituitary gland enlargement on magnetic resonance imaging; stalk thickening and loss of neurohypophyseal bright spot were present in 17.6 and 23.5%, respectively. Lymphocytic hypophysitis was the most common histopathological subtype (50%). Among pathology specimens available for IgG and IgG4 immunostaining (n=10), none fulfilled the criteria for IgG4-related hypophysitis. Four patients were given glucocorticoid treatment in diverse protocols; as initial therapy in 3. Sixteen cases underwent surgery, 7 of whom due to neuro-ophthalmologic involvement. Only 1 patient was observed without any intervention. Reduction of pituitary enlargement was seen in all surgical and glucocorticoid treated cases. None of the surgical patients showed hormonal improvement while one case in glucocorticoid group improved. PH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of sellar masses causing hormonal deficiencies. MRI findings are usually helpful, but not yet sufficient for definitive diagnosis of PH. Treatment usually improves symptoms and reduces sellar masses while hormonal recovery is less common.

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