Int J Sports Med 2020; 41(05): 285-291
DOI: 10.1055/a-1062-6701
Physiology & Biochemistry
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Galectin-3 and Cardiovascular Biomarkers Reflect Adaptation Response to Scuba Diving

1  Dubrava University Hospital, University Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Zagreb, Croatia
,
Antonija Perović
2  Dubrovnik General Hospital, Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Dubrovnik, Croatia
,
Irena Dobrović
3  University of Zagreb Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zagreb, Croatia
,
Sandra Šupraha Goreta
3  University of Zagreb Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zagreb, Croatia
,
Jerka Dumić
3  University of Zagreb Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zagreb, Croatia
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History



accepted 01 November 2019

Publication Date:
23 January 2020 (online)

Abstract

To understand better the adaptation response of the cardiovascular system (CVS) to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving, Galectin-3 (Gal-3) and specific CVS biomarkers were measured in plasma of 16 male recreational divers before and after (30 min, 3 and 6 h) diving (total time of 30 min at 30 m depth) undertaken a after long non-dive period. The one-time SCUBA dive caused a significant increase in Gal-3, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity troponin-I (hs-TnI), and myoglobin immediately after diving. Whereas Gal-3 and myoglobin dropped down to the basal levels during the recovery period, NT-proBNP and hs-TnI concentration continued to increase. An immediate increase of vascular endothelial growth factor, detected immediately after diving, was followed by a significant decrease and return to the basal level, 3 and 6 h after diving, respectively. After a significant initial decrease, endothelin-1 increased during the recovery period, but did not return to the basal level. The observed changes in these biomarkers reflect comprehensive, but transient adaptation of CVS and muscular system to the specific environmental conditions during the SCUBA dive. Whether the recurrent activation of these adaption mechanisms due to repetitive dives has positive or negative effects on CVS remains to be elucidated.