Planta Med 2020; 86(01): 85-90
DOI: 10.1055/a-1023-7419
Natural Product Chemistry and Analytical Studies
Original Papers
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Efficient Extraction of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Plants by Pressurised Liquid Extraction – A Preliminary Study

Thomas Kopp
1  Central Laboratory of German Pharmacists, Eschborn, Germany
2  Institute of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
,
Liesa Salzer
1  Central Laboratory of German Pharmacists, Eschborn, Germany
,
Mona Abdel-Tawab
1  Central Laboratory of German Pharmacists, Eschborn, Germany
,
Boris Mizaikoff
2  Institute of Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 16 April 2019
revised 01 October 2019

accepted 07 October 2019

Publication Date:
21 October 2019 (online)

Abstract

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their corresponding pyrrolizidine alkaloid-N-oxides are secondary plant constituents that became the subject of public concern due to their hepatotoxic, pneumotoxic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects. In contrast to the well-established analytical separation and detection methods, only a few studies have investigated the extraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloids/pyrrolizidine alkaloid-N-oxides from plant material. In this study, we have applied pressurized liquid extraction with the aim of evaluating the effect of various parameters on the recovery of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The nature of the modifier (various acids, NH3) added to the aqueous extraction solvent, its concentration (1 or 5%), and the temperature (50 – 125 °C) were systematically varied. To analyse a wide range of structurally different pyrrolizidine alkaloids, Jacobaea vulgaris (syn. Senecio jacobaea), Tussilago farfara, and Symphytum officinale were included. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS and the results obtained by pressurised liquid extraction were compared with the amount of pyrrolizidine alkaloids determined by an official reference method. Using this approach, increased rates of recovery were obtained for J. vulgaris (up to 174.4%), T. farfara (up to 156.5%), and S. officinale (up to 288.7%). Hence, pressurised liquid extraction was found to be a promising strategy for the complete and automated extraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which could advantageously replace other time- and solvent-consuming extraction methods.

Supporting Information