Int J Sports Med 2020; 41(01): 27-35
DOI: 10.1055/a-1014-2994
Clinical Sciences
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Remodeling in American Style Footballers

Kegan James Moneghetti
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
2  Sports Cardiology, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Tamanna Singh
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Kristofer Hedman
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Jeffrey W. Christle
2  Sports Cardiology, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Zoe Kooreman
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Yukari Kobayashi
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Sara Bouajila
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Myriam Amsallem
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Matthew Wheeler
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
2  Sports Cardiology, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Andre La Gerche
3  Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Sports Cardiology Laboratory, Melbourne, Australia
,
Euan Ashley
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
2  Sports Cardiology, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
,
Francois Haddad
1  School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Stanford University, Stanford, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History



accepted 19 August 2019

Publication Date:
02 December 2019 (online)

Abstract

Several athletic programs incorporate echocardiography during pre-participation screening of American Style Football (ASF) players with great variability in reported echocardiographic values. Pre-participation screening was performed in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I ASF players from 2008 to 2016 at the Division of Sports Cardiology. The echocardiographic protocol focused on left ventricular (LV) mass, mass-to-volume ratio, sphericity, ejection fraction, and longitudinal Lagrangian strain. LV mass was calculated using the area-length method in end-diastole and end-systole. A total of two hundred and thirty players were included (18±1 years, 57% were Caucasian, body mass index 29±4 kg/m2) after four players (2%) were excluded for pathological findings. Although there was no difference in indexed LV mass by race (Caucasian 78±11 vs. African American 81±10 g/m2, p=0.089) or sphericity (Caucasian 1.81±0.13 vs. African American 1.78±0.14, p=0.130), the mass-to-volume ratio was higher in African Americans (0.91±0.09 vs. 0.83±0.08, p<0.001). No race-specific differences were noted in LV longitudinal Lagrangian strain. Player position appeared to have a limited role in defining LV remodeling. In conclusion, significant echocardiographic differences were observed in mass-to-volume ratio between African American and Caucasian players. These demographics should be considered as part of pre-participation screening.

Supplementary Material